Topic

# Optimal asymmetric encryption padding

About: Optimal asymmetric encryption padding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 299 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 43101 citation(s). The topic is also known as: OAEP.

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TL;DR: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key.

Abstract: An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences: (1) Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intented recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key. (2) A message can be “signed” using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in “electronic mail” and “electronic funds transfer” systems. A message is encrypted by representing it as a number M, raising M to a publicly specified power e, and then taking the remainder when the result is divided by the publicly specified product, n, of two large secret primer numbers p and q. Decryption is similar; only a different, secret, power d is used, where e * d ≡ 1(mod (p - 1) * (q - 1)). The security of the system rests in part on the difficulty of factoring the published divisor, n.

14,611 citations

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TL;DR: This work proposes a fully functional identity-based encryption scheme (IBE) based on the Weil pairing that has chosen ciphertext security in the random oracle model assuming an elliptic curve variant of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

Abstract: We propose a fully functional identity-based encryption scheme (IBE). The scheme has chosen ciphertext security in the random oracle model assuming an elliptic curve variant of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Our system is based on the Weil pairing. We give precise definitions for secure identity based encryption schemes and give several applications for such systems.

6,596 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: It is argued that the random oracles model—where all parties have access to a public random oracle—provides a bridge between cryptographic theory and cryptographic practice, and yields protocols much more efficient than standard ones while retaining many of the advantages of provable security.

Abstract: We argue that the random oracle model—where all parties have access to a public random oracle—provides a bridge between cryptographic theory and cryptographic practice. In the paradigm we suggest, a practical protocol P is produced by first devising and proving correct a protocol PR for the random oracle model, and then replacing oracle accesses by the computation of an “appropriately chosen” function h. This paradigm yields protocols much more efficient than standard ones while retaining many of the advantages of provable security. We illustrate these gains for problems including encryption, signatures, and zero-knowledge proofs.

4,977 citations

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01 Jan 2007

TL;DR: This book discusses Private-Key (Symmetric) Cryptography, Number Theory and Cryptographic Hardness Assumptions, and the Random-Oracle Model in Detail.

Abstract: Preface I. Introduction and Classical Cryptography Introduction Cryptography and Modern Cryptography The Setting of Private-Key Encryption Historical Ciphers and Their Cryptanalysis Principles of Modern Cryptography Principle 1 - Formal Definitions Principle 2 - Precise Assumptions Principle 3 - Proofs of Security Provable Security and Real-World Security References and Additional Reading Exercises Perfectly Secret Encryption Definitions The One-Time Pad Limitations of Perfect Secrecy Shannon's Theorem References and Additional Reading Exercises II. Private-Key (Symmetric) Cryptography Private-Key Encryption Computational Security The Concrete Approach The Asymptotic Approach Defining Computationally Secure Encryption The Basic Definition of Security Semantic Security Constructing Secure Encryption Schemes Pseudorandom Generators and Stream Ciphers Proofs by Reduction A Secure Fixed-Length Encryption Scheme Stronger Security Notions Security for Multiple Encryptions Chosen-Plaintext Attacks and CPA-Security Constructing CPA-Secure Encryption Schemes Pseudorandom Functions and Block Ciphers CPA-Secure Encryption from Pseudorandom Functions Modes of Operation Stream-Cipher Modes of Operation Block-Cipher Modes of Operation Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks Defining CCA-Security Padding-Oracle Attacks References and Additional Reading Exercises Message Authentication Codes Message Integrity Secrecy vs. Integrity Encryption vs. Message Authentication Message Authentication Codes - Definitions Constructing Secure Message Authentication Codes A Fixed-Length MAC Domain Extension for MACs CBC-MAC The Basic Construction Proof of Security Authenticated Encryption Definitions Generic Constructions Secure Communication Sessions CCA-Secure Encryption Information-Theoretic MACs Constructing Information-Theoretic MACs Limitations on Information-Theoretic MACs References and Additional Reading Exercises Hash Functions and Applications Definitions Collision Resistance Weaker Notions of Security Domain Extension: The Merkle-Damgard Transform Message Authentication Using Hash Functions Hash-and-MAC HMAC Generic Attacks on Hash Functions Birthday Attacks for Finding Collisions Small-Space Birthday Attacks Time/Space Tradeoffs for Inverting Functions The Random-Oracle Model The Random-Oracle Model in Detail Is the Random-Oracle Methodology Sound? Additional Applications of Hash Functions Fingerprinting and Deduplication Merkle Trees Password Hashing Key Derivation Commitment Schemes References and Additional Reading Exercises Practical Constructions of Symmetric-Key Primitives Stream Ciphers Linear-Feedback Shift Registers Adding Nonlinearity Trivium RC4 Block Ciphers Substitution-Permutation Networks Feistel Networks DES - The Data Encryption Standard 3DES: Increasing the Key Length of a Block Cipher AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis Hash Functions Hash Functions from Block Ciphers MD5 SHA-0, SHA-1, and SHA-2 SHA-3 (Keccak) References and Additional Reading Exercises Theoretical Constructions of Symmetric-Key Primitives One-Way Functions Definitions Candidate One-Way Functions Hard-Core Predicates From One-Way Functions to Pseudorandomness Hard-Core Predicates from One-Way Functions A Simple Case A More Involved Case The Full Proof Constructing Pseudorandom Generators Pseudorandom Generators with Minimal Expansion Increasing the Expansion Factor Constructing Pseudorandom Functions Constructing (Strong) Pseudorandom Permutations Assumptions for Private-Key Cryptography Computational Indistinguishability References and Additional Reading Exercises III. Public-Key (Asymmetric) Cryptography Number Theory and Cryptographic Hardness Assumptions Preliminaries and Basic Group Theory Primes and Divisibility Modular Arithmetic Groups The Group ZN Isomorphisms and the Chinese Remainder Theorem Primes, Factoring, and RSA Generating Random Primes Primality Testing The Factoring Assumption The RSA Assumption Relating the RSA and Factoring Assumptions Cryptographic Assumptions in Cyclic Groups Cyclic Groups and Generators The Discrete-Logarithm/Diffie-Hellman Assumptions Working in (Subgroups of) Zp Elliptic Curves Cryptographic Applications One-Way Functions and Permutations Constructing Collision-Resistant Hash Functions References and Additional Reading Exercises Algorithms for Factoring and Computing Discrete Logarithms Algorithms for Factoring Pollard's p - 1 Algorithm Pollard's Rho Algorithm The Quadratic Sieve Algorithm Algorithms for Computing Discrete Logarithms The Pohlig-Hellman Algorithm The Baby-Step/Giant-Step Algorithm Discrete Logarithms from Collisions The Index Calculus Algorithm Recommended Key Lengths References and Additional Reading Exercises Key Management and the Public-Key Revolution Key Distribution and Key Management A Partial Solution: Key-Distribution Centers Key Exchange and the Diffie-Hellman Protocol The Public-Key Revolution References and Additional Reading Exercises Public-Key Encryption Public-Key Encryption - An Overview Definitions Security against Chosen-Plaintext Attacks Multiple Encryptions Security against Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks Hybrid Encryption and the KEM/DEM Paradigm CPA-Security CCA-Security CDH/DDH-Based Encryption El Gamal Encryption DDH-Based Key Encapsulation A CDH-Based KEM in the Random-Oracle Model Chosen-Ciphertext Security and DHIES/ECIES RSA Encryption Plain RSA Padded RSA and PKCS #1 v1.5 CPA-Secure Encryption without Random Oracles OAEP and RSA PKCS #1 v A CCA-Secure KEM in the Random-Oracle Model RSA Implementation Issues and Pitfalls References and Additional Reading Exercises Digital Signature Schemes Digital Signatures - An Overview Definitions The Hash-and-Sign Paradigm RSA Signatures Plain RSA RSA-FDH and PKCS #1 v Signatures from the Discrete-Logarithm Problem The Schnorr Signature Scheme DSA and ECDSA Signatures from Hash Functions Lamport's Signature Scheme Chain-Based Signatures Tree-Based Signatures Certificates and Public-Key Infrastructures Putting It All Together - SSL/TLS Signcryption References and Additional Reading Exercises Advanced Topics in Public-Key Encryption Public-Key Encryption from Trapdoor Permutations Trapdoor Permutations Public-Key Encryption from Trapdoor Permutations The Paillier Encryption Scheme The Structure of ZN2 The Paillier Encryption Scheme Homomorphic Encryption Secret Sharing and Threshold Encryption Secret Sharing Verifiable Secret Sharing Threshold Encryption and Electronic Voting The Goldwasser-Micali Encryption Scheme Quadratic Residues Modulo a Prime Quadratic Residues Modulo a Composite The Quadratic Residuosity Assumption The Goldwasser-Micali Encryption Scheme The Rabin Encryption Scheme Computing Modular Square Roots A Trapdoor Permutation Based on Factoring The Rabin Encryption Scheme References and Additional Reading Exercises Index of Common Notation Appendix A: Mathematical Background Identities and Inequalities Asymptotic Notation Basic Probability The "Birthday" Problem Finite Fields Appendix B: Basic Algorithmic Number Theory Integer Arithmetic Basic Operations The Euclidean and Extended Euclidean Algorithms Modular Arithmetic Basic Operations Computing Modular Inverses Modular Exponentiation Montgomery Multiplication Choosing a Uniform Group Element Finding a Generator of a Cyclic Group Group-Theoretic Background Efficient Algorithms References and Additional Reading Exercises References Index

1,947 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Non-malleable schemes for each of the contexts of string commitment and zero-knowledge proofs of possession of knowledge, where a user need not know anything about the number or identity of other system users are presented.

Abstract: The notion of non-malleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. The same concept makes sense in the contexts of string commitment and zero-knowledge proofs of possession of knowledge. Non-malleable schemes for each of these three problems are presented. The schemes do not assume a trusted center; a user need not know anything about the number or identity of other system users.

1,155 citations