About: Opuntia matudae is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17 publications have been published within this topic receiving 275 citations.
TL;DR: This investigation shows that the pulp of the studied xoconostle cultivars had an appreciable amount of soluble fiber and antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, while the seeds are a source of fiber, phenolics, flavonoids, PUFAs and tocopherols (specially γ-tocopherol), which provide a good antioxidant capacity.
Abstract: The genus Opuntia embraces different species of cactus, and many of them produce acid fruits known as xoconostle, which are considered valuable vegetable foods in Latin America. Xoconostle fruit contains an edible thick-acid-freshly mesocarp, and seeds that are considered as by-products. Given the high potential of its use and consumption, and the lack of information about its detailed chemical composition and bioactive compounds, the aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pulp and seeds of two highly consumed commercial cultivars of xoconostle fruits (Opuntia joconostle F.A.C. Weber ex Diguet, cv. Cuaresmeno, and Opuntia matudae Scheinvar, cv. Rosa). This investigation shows that the pulp of the studied xoconostle cultivars had an appreciable amount of soluble fiber and antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, while the seeds are a source of fiber, phenolics, flavonoids, PUFAs and tocopherols (specially γ-tocopherol), which provide a good antioxidant capacity. In the light of these results, xoconostle fruits should be considered of great interest for either promoting the conventional consumption, and also as sources of bioactive compounds for the addition to other food products, so that all the nutrients present are fully used, instead of being discarded.
TL;DR: The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry.
Abstract: Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeno (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeno fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry.
TL;DR: The ploidy levels and amounts of DNA of 23 Opuntia species from Mexico were determined by flow cytometry and it was found that Polyploidy is widespread (93%) among these Opuntian species.
Abstract: The ploidy levels and amounts of DNA of 23 Opuntia species from Mexico were determined by flow cytometry. Four different ploidy levels (2n = 2x, 2n = 4x, 2n = 6x, 2n = 8x) with 2C-DNA amount ranging from 4.17 pg (Opuntia incarnadilla Griffiths) to 6.53 pg (Opuntia heliabravoana Scheinvar) were determined among the samples analyzed. Polyploidy is widespread (93%) among these Opuntia species. Opuntia heliabravoana Scheinvar was the sole diploid species. Opuntia leucotricha DC. (2C = 5.71 pg), Opuntia spinulifera Salm-Dyck (2C = 5.51 pg), Opuntia robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. var. larreyi (F. A. C. Weber) Bravo (2C = 4.98 pg), and Opuntia elizondoana E. Sanchez et Villasenor (2C = 5.29 pg) were tetraploids. Opuntia oligacantha C.F. Forst. (2C = 5.33 pg), Opuntia incarnadilla Griffiths and Opuntia matudae Scheinvar (2C = 5.25 pg) were hexaploids. Opuntia zamundioi Scheinvar (2C = 4.35 pg), Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiff. (2C = 4.88 pg), Opuntia hyptiacantha F.A.C. Weber (2C = 4.84 pg), Opuntia streptacantha Lem. ssp. streptacantha (2C = 4.64 pg) and Opuntia streptacantha Lem. subsp. aguirrana Scheinvar et A.␣Rodriguez (2C = 4.43 pg), Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck (2C = 5.01 pg), Opuntia joconostle F.A.C. Weber. ex Diguet (2C = 4.70 pg), Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (2C = 4.90 pg), Opuntia albicarpa Scheinvar (2C = 4.80 pg), Opuntia␣amarilla Griffiths (2C = 4.84 pg), Opuntia chavena Griffiths (2C = 4.70 pg), Opuntia cochinera Griffiths (2C = 5.10 pg), Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths (2C = 4.64 pg), Opuntia pachona Griffiths (2C = 4.70 pg), Opuntia cretochaeta Griffiths (2C = 4.35 pg), Opuntia rzedowskii Scheinvar (2C = 4.77 pg), Opuntia robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. ssp. robusta (2C = 4.98 pg) and Opuntia robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. var. guerrana (Griffiths) Sanchez-Mejorada (2C = 5.05 pg) were all octoploids. The series Streptacanthae Britton et Rose showed a high level of ploidy with octoploid species except for Opuntia heliabravoanae Scheinvar (2n = 2x), Opuntia elizondoana E. Sanchez and Villasenor (2n = 4x) and O. matudae Scheinvar (2n = 6x). Opuntia spinulifera Salm-Dyck was determined to be as a tetraploid species. Series Leucotrichae DC. grouped tetraploid and hexaploid species. The monospecific series Heliabravoanae Scheinvar has one species: Opuntia heliabravoana Scheinvar diploid (2n = 2x). The monospecific series Robustae Britton et Rose seems to be a contradictory group; containing three varieties: Opuntiarobusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. ssp. robusta and Opuntia robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. var. guerrana (Griffiths) Sanchez-Mejorada as octoploid taxa and: Opuntia robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiff. var. larreyi (F.A.C. Weber) Bravo which is tetraploid. In earlier report Rafael del Castillo and Mario Gonzalez-Espinosa (1988) indicate that the arborescent varieties of this species are diploid and the postrate variety tetraploid. Implications for botanical systematics, genetic resources and breeding are discussed.
TL;DR: The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv.
Abstract: There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.
TL;DR: The genetic distance revealed in the present study shows the importance of Mexican accessions for conservation and use in breeding programs and the incorrect delimitation of species in this genus.
Abstract: The Opuntia (prickly pear) genus, an important horticultural crop in Mexico, is essentially a fruit crop with two variants: sweet (“tunas”) or acid (“xoconostles”) fruits; it is also a source of vegetables “nopalitos” or fodder for livestock, among other uses. Its taxonomical classification has been reported as complex, although few studies on the genetic structure of Mexican Opuntia are available, and genetic differences between the two types of fruits are unknown. Opuntia genotype identification and classification are still mainly based on morphological characters. In this study, the genetic diversity of Mexican Opuntia germplasm with agronomic and economic importance was revealed, using 88 accessions and 13 SSR markers, in an attempt to explore the genetic relationships among them. A total of 159 alleles were detected ranging from 7 to 23 per locus with an average of 12.2. The SSR markers generated unique fingerprints for each Opuntia accession confirming their usefulness for genetic analysis. The accessions’ grouping was defined by several complementary clustering methods, and the moderate incongruences between the different methods did not influence the overall clustering. DAPC and STRUCTURE analyses grouped the accessions into five groups, thus confirming the incorrect delimitation of species in this genus. The following species had no clear boundaries: Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia albicarpa, Opuntia megacantha, Opuntia streptacantha, Opuntia lasiacantha, and Opuntia hyptiacantha. However, Opuntia robusta was separated from the rest of the species. Opuntia joconostle and Opuntia matudae, which produce acid fruits, tended to differ from the others. Median-joining simulation classified all genotypes into a complex network, and both linear and reticular ties between Mexican Opuntia genotypes were revealed. The genetic distance revealed in the present study shows the importance of Mexican accessions for conservation and use in breeding programs.