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Oral hygiene

About: Oral hygiene is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10473 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 204193 citation(s). The topic is also known as: dental hygiene.


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Journal Article
TL;DR: The origin of indices for recording gingivitis and plaque is reviewed and the use of the site prevalence of a single finding is suggested, which could be used as a clinically relevant parameter for oral hygiene and gingival inflammation.
Abstract: The origin of indices for recording gingivitis and plaque is reviewed. Each index seems to have been constructed for a special purpose. The development so far has been towards more and more delicately graded indices which are well suited for evaluation of short term clinical trials. The increased sensitively, though advantageous for scientific purpose, is not always practical from a public dental health point of view. It seems that at present there is a need for several different types of index systems. In order to be able to conduct his preventive programs the practicing dentist needs a simple and well defined recording system for oral hygiene and gingival inflammation. Such an index system should be as easy and natural to use as is the scoring of decayed and filled surfaces today. Instead of using individual mean scores of multi-graded plaque and gingival indices, the use of the site prevalence of a single finding is suggested. For recording of gingivitis in daily dental practice the number of gingival margins bleeding on pressure is recommended to be determined as a percentage of the sites examined (Fig. 1,2 and 3). For oral hygiene, correspondingly, the frequency of occurrence of tooth surfaces covered with clearly visible plaque could be used as a clinically relevant parameter (Fig. 4). Keeping visible plaque and gingival bleeding away is also suggested to be a clearly understandable and practical aim in the dental health education of the individual patient.

2,330 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The burden of oral diseases worldwide is outlined and the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health is described, which reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes.
Abstract: This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries.

2,206 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Mar 1993-BMJ
TL;DR: Dental disease is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, particularly in young men, and may be a more general indicator of personal hygiene and possibly health care practices.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE--To investigate a reported association between dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease. SETTING--National sample of American adults who participated in a health examination survey in the early 1970s. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study in which participants underwent a standard dental examination at baseline and were followed up to 1987. Proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate relative risks adjusted for several covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence of mortality or admission to hospital because of coronary heart disease; total mortality. RESULTS--Among all 9760 subjects included in the analysis those with periodontitis had a 25% increased risk of coronary heart disease relative to those with minimal periodontal disease. Poor oral hygiene, determined by the extent of dental debris and calculus, was also associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. In men younger than 50 years at baseline periodontal disease was a stronger risk factor for coronary heart disease; men with periodontitis had a relative risk of 1.72. Both periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene showed stronger associations with total mortality than with coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION--Dental disease is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, particularly in young men. Whether this is a causal association is unclear. Dental health may be a more general indicator of personal hygiene and possibly health care practices.

1,060 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients in a private periodontal practice were reexamined an average of 22 years after their active treatment and the patterns of tooth loss were observed and tooth retention seemed more closely related to the case type than the surgery performed.
Abstract: 1. Six hundred patients in a private periodontal practice were reexamined an average of 22 years after their active treatment and the patterns of tooth loss were observed. 2. During the post-treatment period, 300 patients had lost no teeth from periodontal disease, 199 had lost one to three teeth, 76 had lost 4 to 9 teeth and 25 had lost 10 to 23 teeth. 3. Of 2,139 teeth that originally had been considered of questionable prognosis, 666 were lost. Of these, 394 were lost by one sixth of the patients and only 272 by the other five-sixths. 4. Of 1,464 teeth which originally had furcation involvements, 460 were lost, 240 of them by one-sixth of the patients who deteriorated most. 5. The mortality of teeth which were treated with periodontal surgery was compared with that of teeth which did not have surgery. Tooth retention seemed more closely related to the case type than the surgery performed. 6. In general, periodontal disease is bilaterally symmetrical and there is a predictable order of likelihood of tooth loss according to position in the arch.

864 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that mild gingivitis could be diagnosed clinically at approximately the same time as the complex flora was established and sub-clinical inflammation started much earlier, probably as a reaction to the first phases of plaque development.
Abstract: After 9–21 days without oral hygiene eleven experimental subjects with previously excellent oral hygiene and healthy gingivae developed heavy accumulations of plaque and generalized mild gingivitis. The individual rate of development of gingivitis was closely correlated with the rate of plaque accumulation. Characteristic bacteriological changes were revealed in the plaque along the gingival margin during this experiment. Initially, i.e. when the teeth were clean and the gingiva healthy, the extremely sparse plaque flora consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive cocci and rods. The first phase of plaque development occurred during the first 2 days without oral hygiene and consisted of a proliferation of the gram-positive cocci and rods and an addition of about 30 per cent gram-negative cocci and rods. During the second phase (after 1–4 days) fusobacteria and filaments appeared and increased until they each made up about seven per cent of the flora. During the third phase (after 4–9 days) the flora was supplemented with spirilla and spirochetes, and at the end of the period without oral hygiene each of these two groups of organisms accounted for about two per cent of the plaque flora. In specific areas the gingival condition was correlated with the composition of the plaque and it was found that mild gingivitis could be diagnosed clinically at approximately the same time as the complex flora was established. However, sub-clinical inflammation started much earlier, probably as a reaction to the first phases of plaque development. When oral hygiene was reinstituted, the plaque in most areas disappeared in 1–2 days and after 7–11 days the Plaque Index for each subject was as low as before the experiment. Correspondingly, after 1–2 days most tooth surfaces only harbored the original sparse flora of gram-positive cocci and rods. The gingival inflammation in an area usually disappeared one day after the plaque had been removed.

839 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021552
2020634
2019603
2018511
2017553