About: Organic acid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8264 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 123881 citation(s).
David L. Jones1•Institutions (1)
01 Dec 1998-Plant and Soil
Abstract: Organic acids, such as malate, citrate and oxalate, have been proposed to be involved in many processes operating in the rhizosphere, including nutrient acquisition and metal detoxification, alleviation of anaerobic stress in roots, mineral weathering and pathogen attraction. A full assessment of their role in these processes, however, cannot be determined unless the exact mechanisms of plant organic acid release and the fate of these compounds in the soil are more fully understood. This review therefore includes information on organic acid levels in plants (concentrations, compartmentalisation, spatial aspects, synthesis), plant efflux (passive versus active transport, theoretical versus experimental considerations), soil reactions (soil solution concentrations, sorption) and microbial considerations (mineralization). In summary, the release of organic acids from roots can operate by multiple mechanisms in response to a number of well-defined environmental stresses (e.g., Al, P and Fe stress, anoxia): These responses, however, are highly stress- and plant-species specific. In addition, this review indicates that the sorption of organic acids to the mineral phase and mineralisation by the soil's microbial biomass are critical to determining the effectiveness of organic acids in most rhizosphere processes.
01 Jun 2001-Trends in Plant Science
TL;DR: A range of plant species has evolved mechanisms that enable them to grow on acid soils where toxic concentrations of Al(3+) can limit plant growth, and organic acids play a central role in these aluminium tolerance mechanisms.
Abstract: The aluminium cation Al(3+) is toxic to many plants at micromolar concentrations. A range of plant species has evolved mechanisms that enable them to grow on acid soils where toxic concentrations of Al(3+) can limit plant growth. Organic acids play a central role in these aluminium tolerance mechanisms. Some plants detoxify aluminium in the rhizosphere by releasing organic acids that chelate aluminium. In at least two species, wheat and maize, the transport of organic acid anions out of the root cells is mediated by aluminium-activated anion channels in the plasma membrane. Other plants, including species that accumulate aluminium in their leaves, detoxify aluminium internally by forming complexes with organic acids.
Steven C. Ricke1•Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2003-Poultry Science
TL;DR: Development and application of molecular tools to study pathogen behavior in preharvest and postharvest food production environments will enable dissection of specific bacterial genetic regulation involved in response to organic acids, which could lead to the development of more targeted strategies to control foodborne pathogens with organic acids.
Abstract: Organic acids have a long history of being utilized as food additives and preservatives for preventing food deterioration and extending the shelf life of perishable food ingredients. Specific organic acids have also been used to control microbial contamination and dissemination of foodborne pathogens in preharvest and postharvest food production and processing. The antibacterial mechanism(s) for organic acids are not fully understood, and activity may vary depending on physiological status of the organism and the physicochemical characteristics of the external environment. An emerging potential problem is that organic acids have been observed to enhance survivability of acid sensitive pathogens exposed to low pH by induction of an acid tolerance response and that acid tolerance may be linked to increased virulence. Although this situation has implications regarding the use of organic acids, it may only apply to circumstances in which reduced acid levels have induced resistance and virulence mechanisms in exposed organisms. Evaluating effectiveness of organic acids for specific applications requires more understanding general and specific stress response capabilities of foodborne pathogens. Development and application of molecular tools to study pathogen behavior in preharvest and postharvest food production environments will enable dissection of specific bacterial genetic regulation involved in response to organic acids. This could lead to the development of more targeted strategies to control foodborne pathogens with organic acids.
01 Aug 1997-Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Abstract: This study quantifies metal adsorption onto cell wall surfaces of Bacillus subtilis by applying equilibrium thermodynamics to the specific chemical reactions that occur at the water-bacteria interface. We use acid/base titrations to determine deprotonation constants for the important surface functional groups, and we perform metal-bacteria adsorption experiments, using Cd, Cu, Pb, and Al, to yield site-specific stability constants for the important metal-bacteria surface complexes. The acid/base properties of the cell wall of B. subtilis can best be characterized by invoking three distinct types of surface organic acid functional groups, with pK a values of 4.82 ± 0.14, 6.9 ± 0.5, and 9.4 ± 0.6. These functional groups likely correspond to carboxyl, phosphate, and hydroxyl sites, respectively, that are displayed on the cell wall surface. The results of the metal adsorption experiments indicate that both the carboxyl sites and the phosphate sites contribute to metal uptake. The values of the log stability constants for metal-carboxyl surface complexes range from 3.4 for Cd, 4.2 for Pb, 4.3 for Cu, to 5.0 for Al. These results suggest that the stabilities of the metal-surface complexes are high enough for metal-bacterial interactions to affect metal mobilities in many aqueous systems, and this approach enables quantitative assessment of the effects of bacteria on metal mobilities.
Geoffrey M. Gadd1•Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1999-Advances in Microbial Physiology
TL;DR: The physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi are discussed, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry.
Abstract: The production of organic acids by fungi has profound implications for metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical cycles. Biosynthesis of oxalic acid from glucose occurs by hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate catalysed by cytosolic oxaloacetase, whereas on citric acid, oxalate production occurs by means of glyoxylate oxidation. Citric acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with metals greatly influencing biosynthesis: growth limiting concentrations of Mn, Fe and Zn are important for high yields. The metal-complexing properties of these organic acids assist both essential metal and anionic (e.g. phosphate) nutrition of fungi, other microbes and plants, and determine metal speciation and mobility in the environment, including transfer between terrestrial and aquatic habitats, biocorrosion and weathering. Metal solubilization processes are also of potential for metal recovery and reclamation from contaminated solid wastes, soils and low-grade ores. Such ‘heterotrophic leaching’ can occur by several mechanisms but organic acids occupy a central position in the overall process, supplying both protons and a metal-complexing organic acid anion. Most simple metal oxalates [except those of alkali metals, Fe(III) and Al] are sparingly soluble and precipitate as crystalline or amorphous solids. Calcium oxalate is the most important manifestation of this in the environment and, in a variety of crystalline structures, is ubiquitously associated with free-living, plant symbiotic and pathogenic fungi. The main forms are the monohydrate (whewellite) and the dihydrate (weddelite) and their formation is of significance in biomineralization, since they affect nutritional heterogeneity in soil, especially Ca, P, K and Al cycling. The formation of insoluble toxic metal oxalates, e.g. of Cu, may confer tolerance and ensure survival in contaminated environments. In semiarid environments, calcium oxalate formation is important in the formation and alteration of terrestrial subsurface limestones. Oxalate also plays an important role in lignocellulose degradation and plant pathogenesis, affecting activities of key enzymes and metal oxidoreduction reactions, therefore underpinning one of the most fundamental roles of fungi in carbon cycling in the natural environment. This review discusses the physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry.