scispace - formally typeset

Topic

Organic acid transport

About: Organic acid transport is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 169 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 293189 citation(s).
Papers
More filters

Journal Article
TL;DR: Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.
Abstract: Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins, a number of modified analytical procedures utilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum, in antigen-antibody precipitates, and in insulin. Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sensitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard to effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of reactants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering substances. Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.

285,427 citations


Book
01 Feb 1992-
TL;DR: Genetics embryology the placenta developmental pharmacology and pharmacokinetics intrauterine growth postnatal growth and nutrition lipid metabolism in the foetus and newborn carbohydrate metabolism protein metabolism thermo regulation skin foetal and neonatal cardiovascular physiology.
Abstract: Section I - Genetics and Embryology Basic Genetic Principles Prenatal Diagnosis Basic Embryology Regulation of Embryogenesis The Extracellular Matrix in Development Stem Cell Biology Apoptotic Cell Death Angiogenesis Epigenetics Section II - Placenta and Intrauterine Environment Placental Development Regulation of the Placental Circulation Mechanisms of Transfer Across the Human Placenta Endocrine and Paracrine Function of the Human Placenta Fetal and Maternal Responses to Intrauterine Infection Fetal Origins of Adult Disease: A Classic Hypothesis with New Relevance Physiologic Effects of Multiple Pregnancy on Mother and Fetus Placental function in intrauterine growth restriction Section III - Developmental Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics Basic Pharmacologic Principles Principles of Pharmacokinetics Physicochemical and Structural Properties Regulating Placental Drug Transfer Pharmacogenetics Drug Distribution in Fetal Life Drug Transfer During Breastfeeding Section IV - Intrauterine and Postnatal Growth Circulatory and Metabolic Changes Accompanying Fetal Growth Restriction Endocrine Factors Affecting Neonatal Growth Human Milk Composition and Function in the Infant Physiology of Lactation Section V - Perinatal Iron, Mineral, and Vitamin Metabolism Fetal and Neonatal Iron Metabolism Neonatal Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Homeostasis Zinc in the Fetus and Neonate Vitamin A Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate Vitamin E Metabolism in the Fetus and Newborn Infant Vitamin K Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate Section VI - Lipid Metabolism Maternal-Fetal Transfer of Lipid Metabolites Brown Adipose Tissue: Development and Function Lipids as an Energy Source for the Premature and Full-Term Neonate Ketone Body Production and Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Developing Retina and Brain Section VII - Carbohydrate Metabolism Metabolism of Glucose and Methods of Investigation in the Fetus and Newborn Carbohydrate Metabolism During Pregnancy Oxygen Consumption and General Carbohydrate Metabolism of the Fetus Role of Glucoregulatory Hormones in Hepatic Glucose Metabolism During the Perinatal Period Cell Glucose Transport and Glucose Handling During Fetal and Neonatal Development Section VIII - Protein Metabolism General Concepts of Protein Metabolism Fetal Requirements and Placental Transfer of Nitrogenous Compounds Section IX - Thermoregulation Temperature Control in Newborn Infants Responses of the Fetus and Neonate to Hypothermia Section X - Skin Structure and Development of Skin and Cutaneous Appendages Physiologic Development of the Skin Section XI - Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiovascular Development Developmental Electrophysiology in the Fetus and Neonate Developmental Biology of the Pulmonary Vasculature Development of the Gastrointestinal Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn Physiology of Congenital Heart Disease in the Neonate Neural Regulation of Blood Pressure During Fetal and Newborn Life Developmental Effects on Fetal Circulation Mechanisms Regulating Closure of the Ductus Arteriosus Umbilical Circulation Fetal and Placental Circulation During Labor Physiology of Resuscitation Section XII - The Lung Normal and Abnormal Structural Development of the Lung Regulation of Alveolarization Physiologic Mechanisms of Normal and Altered Lung Growth Before and After Birth Molecular Mechanisms of Lung Development and Lung Branching Morphogenesis Regulation of Liquid Secretion and Absorption by the Fetal and Neonatal Lung Upper Airway Structure: Function, Regulation, and Development Regulation of Lower Airway Function Functional Development of Respiratory Muscles Mechanics of Breathing Pulmonary Gas Exchange in the Developing Lung Oxygen Transport and Delivery Control of Breathing in Fetal Life and Onset and Control of Breathing in the Neonate Basic Mechanisms of Oxygen Sensing and Response to Hypoxia Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in the Neonate Mechanisms of Neonatal Lung Injury Impaired Lung Growth After Injury in Premature Lung Antenatal Factors That Influence Postnatal Lung Development and Injury Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation Section XIII - Surfactant Historical Perspective Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant Lipids and Proteins Structure And Development of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Regulation of Surfactant-Associated Phospholipid Synthesis and Secretion Hormonal Therapy for Prevention of Respiratory Distress Syndrome Surfactant Treatment Genetics and Physiology of Surfactant Protein Deficiencies Section XIV - Physiology of Gastrointestinal Tract in the Fetus and Neonate Trophic Factors and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver Development Organogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract Development of the Enteric Nervous System Development of Gastric Secretory Function Development of Gastrointestinal Motility Development of the Exocrine Pancreas Digestive-Absorption Functions in Fetuses, Infants, and Children Development of the Intestinal Microbiome Section XV - Liver and Bilirubin Metabolism Organogenesis and Histologic Development of the Liver Bile Acid Metabolism During Development Neonatal Bilirubin Metabolism Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Mechanisms of Action of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Section XVI - The Kidney Embryogenesis and Anatomic Development of the Kidney Functional Development of the Kidney in Utero Development and Regulation of Renal Blood flow in the Neonate Development of the Renin-Angiotensin System Postnatal Development of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Neonates Renal Transport of Sodium During Early Development Potassium Homeostasis in the Fetus and Neonate Role of the Kidney in Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis Transport of Amino Acids in the Fetus and Neonate Developmental Aspects of Organic Acid Transport Concentration and Dilution of the Urine Development of Acidification Mechanisms in the Fetus and Neonate Response to Nephron Loss in Early Development Section XVII - Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism Fluid Distribution in the Fetus and Neonate Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in the Fetus and Neonate Section XVIII - Developmental Hematopoiesis Developmental Biology of Stem Cells: From the Embryo to the Adult Developmental Granulocytopoiesis Developmental Erythropoiesis Developmental Megakaryocytopoiesis Section XIX - Hemostasis Developmental Hemostasis Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions Section XX - Developmental Immunobiology Host Defense Mechanisms Against Bacteria Host-Fungi Interactions Relevant to the Newborn Infant Host Defense Mechanisms Against Viruses T-Cell Development B-Cell Development Mononuclear Phagocyte System Normal and Abnormal Neutrophil Physiology in the Newborn The Complement System of the Fetus and Newborn Cytokines and Inflammatory Response in the Fetus and Neonate Immunology of Human Milk and Host Immunity Neonatal Pulmonary Host Defense Section XXI - Neurology Development of the Nervous System Development of the Blood-Brain Barrier Trophic Factor and Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Brain Development Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Neonate Cerebellar Development - an Impact of Preterm Birth and Co-Morbidities Electroencephalography in the Premature and Full-Term Infant Developmental Aspects of Pain Section XXII - Special Sensory Systems in the Fetus and Neonate Early Development of the Human Auditory System Development of Taste and Smell in the Neonate Section XXIII - Orthopedics The Growth Plate: Embryologic Origin, Structure, and Function Ontogenesis of Striated Muscle Section XXIV - Endocrine Function Hypothalamus: Neuroendometabolic Center Growth Factor Regulation of Fetal Growth Growth Hormone in the Fetus and Newborn Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Secretion in the Fetus and Newborn Development of the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Corticotropin System in the Mammalian Fetus Fetal and Neonatal Adrenocortical Physiology Fetal and Neonatal Thyroid Physiology Section XXV - Ovary and Testis Genetics of Sex Determination and Differentiation Differentiation of the Ovary Testicular Development and Descent Section XXVI - Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases Pathophysiology of Neonatal sepsis Pathophysiology of Hypoglycemia in the Neonate Pathophysiology of Cardiomyopathies Pathophysiology of Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn Pathophysiology of Shock in the Fetus and Neonate Pathophysiology of Apnea of Prematurity Pathophysiology of Respiratory Distress Syndrome Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Pathophysiology of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Pathophysiology of Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis Pathophysiology of Kernicterus Pathophysiology of neonatal acute kidney injury Pathophysiology of Edema Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury Pathophysiology of Meningitis Pathophysiology of Neural Tube Defects Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia Pathophysiology of Preterm Birth Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis

936 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Triin Vahisalu1, Hannes Kollist1, Hannes Kollist2, Yong-Fei Wang3  +10 moreInstitutions (5)
27 Mar 2008-Nature
TL;DR: The mapping and characterization of an ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, slac1, is reported, showing that SLAC1 is preferentially expressed in guard cells and encodes a distant homologue of fungal and bacterial dicarboxylate/malic acid transport proteins, and a vital role forSLAC1 in the function of S-type anion channels is suggested.
Abstract: Stomatal pores, formed by two surrounding guard cells in the epidermis of plant leaves, allow influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide in exchange for transpirational water loss Stomata also restrict the entry of ozone--an important air pollutant that has an increasingly negative impact on crop yields, and thus global carbon fixation and climate change The aperture of stomatal pores is regulated by the transport of osmotically active ions and metabolites across guard cell membranes Despite the vital role of guard cells in controlling plant water loss, ozone sensitivity and CO2 supply, the genes encoding some of the main regulators of stomatal movements remain unknown It has been proposed that guard cell anion channels function as important regulators of stomatal closure and are essential in mediating stomatal responses to physiological and stress stimuli However, the genes encoding membrane proteins that mediate guard cell anion efflux have not yet been identified Here we report the mapping and characterization of an ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, slac1 We show that SLAC1 (SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1) is preferentially expressed in guard cells and encodes a distant homologue of fungal and bacterial dicarboxylate/malic acid transport proteins The plasma membrane protein SLAC1 is essential for stomatal closure in response to CO2, abscisic acid, ozone, light/dark transitions, humidity change, calcium ions, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide Mutations in SLAC1 impair slow (S-type) anion channel currents that are activated by cytosolic Ca2+ and abscisic acid, but do not affect rapid (R-type) anion channel currents or Ca2+ channel function A low homology of SLAC1 to bacterial and fungal organic acid transport proteins, and the permeability of S-type anion channels to malate suggest a vital role for SLAC1 in the function of S-type anion channels

677 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2007-Plant Physiology
Abstract: Iron, despite being an essential micronutrient, becomes toxic if present at high levels. As a result, plants possess carefully regulated mechanisms to acquire iron from the soil. The ferric reductase defective3 (frd3) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is chlorotic and exhibits constitutive expression of its iron uptake responses. Consequently, frd3 mutants overaccumulate iron; yet, paradoxically, the frd3 phenotypes are due to a reduction in the amount of iron present inside frd3 leaf cells. The FRD3 protein belongs to the multidrug and toxin efflux family, members of which are known to export low-Mr organic molecules. We therefore hypothesized that FRD3 loads an iron chelator necessary for the correct distribution of iron throughout the plant into the xylem. One such potential chelator is citrate. Xylem exudate from frd3 plants contains significantly less citrate and iron than the exudate from wild-type plants. Additionally, supplementation of growth media with citrate rescues the frd3 phenotypes. The ectopic expression of FRD3-GFP results in enhanced tolerance to aluminum in Arabidopsis roots, a hallmark of organic acid exudation. Consistent with this result, approximately 3 times more citrate was detected in root exudate from plants ectopically expressing FRD3-GFP. Finally, heterologous studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes reveal that FRD3 mediates the transport of citrate. These results all strongly support the hypothesis that FRD3 effluxes citrate into the root vasculature, a process important for the translocation of iron to the leaves, as well as confirm previous reports suggesting that iron moves through the xylem as a ferric-citrate complex. Our results provide additional answers to long-standing questions about iron chelation in the vasculature and organic acid transport.

461 citations


01 Jan 2007-
TL;DR: The results all strongly support the hypothesis that FRD3 effluxes citrate into the root vasculature, a process important for the translocation of iron to the leaves, as well as confirm previous reports suggesting that iron moves through the xylem as a ferric-citrate complex.
Abstract: Iron, despite being an essential micronutrient, becomes toxic if present at high levels. As a result, plants possess carefully regulated mechanisms to acquire iron from the soil. The ferric reductase defective3 (frd3) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is chlorotic and exhibits constitutive expression of its iron uptake responses. Consequently, frd3 mutants overaccumulate iron; yet, paradoxically, the frd3 phenotypes are due to a reduction in the amount of iron present inside frd3 leaf cells. The FRD3 protein belongs to the multidrug and toxin efflux family, members of which are known to export low-M r organic molecules. We therefore hypothesized that FRD3 loads an iron chelator necessary for the correct distribution of iron throughout the plant into the xylem. One such potential chelator is citrate. Xylem exudate from frd3 plants contains significantly less citrate and iron than the exudate from wild-type plants. Additionally, supplementation of growth media with citrate rescues the frd3 phenotypes. The ectopic expression of FRD3-GFP results in enhanced tolerance to aluminum in Arabidopsis roots, a hallmark of organic acid exudation. Consistent with this result, approximately 3 times more citrate was detected in root exudate from plants ectopically expressing FRD3-GFP. Finally, heterologous studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes reveal that FRD3 mediates the transport of citrate. These results all strongly support the hypothesis that FRD3 effluxes citrate into the root vasculature, a process important for the translocation of iron to the leaves, as well as confirm previous reports suggesting that iron moves through the xylem as a ferric-citrate complex. Our results provide additional answers to longstanding questions about iron chelation in the vasculature and organic acid transport. Plants, like most other organisms, require iron for essential everyday processes. Iron’s usefulness is primarily derived from its ability to adopt two different ionic states; consequently, iron is present in many enzymes that catalyze redox reactions or are involved in electron transfer. Iron is abundant in most soils, yet exists mostly as Fe(III) hydroxides, which are sparingly soluble at neutral pH. Plants use two different strategies to extract iron under these conditions. One approach, called Strategy I and utilized by nongraminaceous species, involves the coordinate up-regulation of three biochemical activities in the roots of irondeficient plants (Marschner, 1995). The rhizosphere is

440 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Glutathione

42.5K papers, 1.8M citations

71% related
Kidney

73K papers, 2.1M citations

71% related
Intracellular

41.4K papers, 1.8M citations

71% related
Mitochondrion

51.5K papers, 3M citations

71% related
Protein kinase C

38.2K papers, 1.7M citations

71% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20214
20201
20193
20181
20172
20161

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jerry B. Hook

4 papers, 48 citations

Munekazu Gemba

3 papers, 13 citations

Roland J. Boegman

3 papers, 214 citations

Richard J. Beninger

3 papers, 214 citations

Khem Jhamandas

3 papers, 214 citations