Organic photorefractive materials
About: Organic photorefractive materials is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 697 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 13041 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1978-Ferroelectrics
TL;DR: In this paper, a non-linear theory of self-diffraction on the light induced grating of refractive index in electrooptic crystals is developed and the intensities of the diffracted beams, the diffraction efficiency, and the shape of the surfaces of equal index change are calculated analytically for saturation holograms.
Abstract: The non-linear theory of the self-diffraction on the light induced grating of refractive index in electrooptic crystals is developed. The intensities of the diffracted beams, the diffraction efficiency, and the shape of the surfaces of equal index change are calculated analytically for saturation holograms.Holographic storage in nominally pure reduced crystals of LiNbO3 is studied experimentally. It is shown that the developed theory in diffusion approximation satisfactorily describes the experimental data.
01 Jan 1994-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a polymer composite with excellent photorefractive properties, achieving a diffraction efficiency approaching 100% and a net two-beam coupling gain of more than 200 cm-1.
Abstract: PHOTOREFRACTIVE materials are of considerable interest for the development of all-optical devices1. The photoref ractive effect appears in materials that exhibit an electric-field-dependent refractive index and that are photosensitive, such that the spatial distribution of photogenerated charge carriers is modified on irradiation with light. The diffraction pattern formed by the interference of two coherent light beams within such a material generates a non-uniform internal electric field that in turn modulates the refractive index. The resulting refractive-index pattern forms a grating that can diffract light and thereby give rise to two-beam coupling, whereby one of the writing beams gains energy at the expense of the other—a property that can be exploited in photonic devices. Although the best photorefractive materials currently available are inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3, there is considerable interest in the development of photorefractive polymers2–8, owing to their structural flexibility, ease of processing and lower cost. We describe here a polymer composite with excellent photorefractive properties. We have achieved a diffraction efficiency approaching 100% and a net two-beam coupling gain of more than 200 cm–1, making these polymeric materials suitable for immediate application in areas such as dynamic holographic storage and optical information processing1.
10 Dec 1990-Physical Review Letters
TL;DR: The observation of the photorefractive effect in an amorphous electro-optic material, the nonlinear polymer bisphenol A diglycidyl ether 4-nitro-1,2,phenylenediamine (bisA-NPDA) make photoconductive by doping with the hole transport agent diethylaminobenzaldehyde-diphenyl hydrazone.
Abstract: We report the first observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymeric material, the electro-optic polymer bisphenol-A-diglycidylether 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine made photoconductive by doping with the hole-transport agent diethylamino-benzaldehyde diphenylhydrazone. The gratings formed exhibit dynamic writing and erasure, strong electric-field dependence, polarization anisotropy, and estimated space-charge fields up to 26 kV/cm at an applied field of 126 kV/cm. Application of similar concepts should provide a broad new class of easily fabricated photorefractive materials.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a large number of lithium niobate crystals with two different deep electron traps (iron and manganese) to construct a red-light interference pattern that can be read in the absence of ultraviolet light.
Abstract: Photorefractive materials are being widely investigated for applications in holographic data storage1. Inhomogeneous illumination of these materials with an optical interference pattern redistributes charge, builds up internal electric fields and so changes the refractive index. Subsequent homogeneous illumination results in light diffraction and reconstructs the information encoded in the original interference pattern. A range of inorganic and organic photorefractive materials are known2, in which thousands of holograms of high fidelity can be efficiently stored, reconstructed and erased. But there remains a problem with volatility: the read-out process usually erases the stored information and amplifies the scattered light. Several techniques for ‘fixing’ holograms have been developed3,4,5,6, but they have practical disadvantages and only laboratory demonstrators have been built7,8,9,10. Here we describe a resolution to the problem of volatility that should lead to the realization of a more practical system. We use crystals of lithium niobate — available both in large size and with excellent homogeneity — that have been doped with two different deep electron traps (iron and manganese). Illumination of the crystals with incoherent ultraviolet light during the recording process permits the storage of data (a red-light interference pattern) that can be subsequently read, in the absence of ultraviolet light, without erasure. Our crystals show up to 32 per cent diffraction efficiency, rapid optical erasure of the stored data is possible using ultraviolet light, and light scattering is effectively prevented.
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