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Organic solar cell

About: Organic solar cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17831 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 698026 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
G. Yu1, Jun Gao1, Jan C. Hummelen1, Fred Wudl1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Dec 1995-Science
Abstract: The carrier collection efficiency (ηc) and energy conversion efficiency (ηe) of polymer photovoltaic cells were improved by blending of the semiconducting polymer with C60 or its functionalized derivatives. Composite films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and fullerenes exhibit ηc of about 29 percent of electrons per photon and ηe of about 2.9 percent, efficiencies that are better by more than two orders of magnitude than those that have been achieved with devices made with pure MEH-PPV. The efficient charge separation results from photoinduced electron transfer from the MEH-PPV (as donor) to C60 (as acceptor); the high collection efficiency results from a bicontinuous network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions.

9,119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Sep 2013-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that perovskite absorbers can function at the highest efficiencies in simplified device architectures, without the need for complex nanostructures.
Abstract: Many different photovoltaic technologies are being developed for large-scale solar energy conversion. The wafer-based first-generation photovoltaic devices have been followed by thin-film solid semiconductor absorber layers sandwiched between two charge-selective contacts and nanostructured (or mesostructured) solar cells that rely on a distributed heterojunction to generate charge and to transport positive and negative charges in spatially separated phases. Although many materials have been used in nanostructured devices, the goal of attaining high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a way has yet to be achieved. Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanostructured devices. Here we show that nanostructuring is not necessary to achieve high efficiencies with this material: a simple planar heterojunction solar cell incorporating vapour-deposited perovskite as the absorbing layer can have solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 15 per cent (as measured under simulated full sunlight). This demonstrates that perovskite absorbers can function at the highest efficiencies in simplified device architectures, without the need for complex nanostructures.

6,336 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review gives a general introduction to the materials, production techniques, working principles, critical parameters, and stability of the organic solar cells, and discusses the alternative approaches such as polymer/polymer solar cells and organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.
Abstract: The need to develop inexpensive renewable energy sources stimulates scientific research for efficient, low-cost photovoltaic devices.1 The organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements have introduced at least the potential of obtaining cheap and easy methods to produce energy from light.2 The possibility of chemically manipulating the material properties of polymers (plastics) combined with a variety of easy and cheap processing techniques has made polymer-based materials present in almost every aspect of modern society.3 Organic semiconductors have several advantages: (a) lowcost synthesis, and (b) easy manufacture of thin film devices by vacuum evaporation/sublimation or solution cast or printing technologies. Furthermore, organic semiconductor thin films may show high absorption coefficients4 exceeding 105 cm-1, which makes them good chromophores for optoelectronic applications. The electronic band gap of organic semiconductors can be engineered by chemical synthesis for simple color changing of light emitting diodes (LEDs).5 Charge carrier mobilities as high as 10 cm2/V‚s6 made them competitive with amorphous silicon.7 This review is organized as follows. In the first part, we will give a general introduction to the materials, production techniques, working principles, critical parameters, and stability of the organic solar cells. In the second part, we will focus on conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells, mainly on polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) derivatives/(1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61) (PCBM) fullerene derivatives and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/PCBM systems. In the third part, we will discuss the alternative approaches such as polymer/polymer solar cells and organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. In the fourth part, we will suggest possible routes for further improvements and finish with some conclusions. The different papers mentioned in the text have been chosen for didactical purposes and cannot reflect the chronology of the research field nor have a claim of completeness. The further interested reader is referred to the vast amount of quality papers published in this field during the past decade.

5,843 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s. [1–3] Among all alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells could lead the most significant cost reduction. [4] The field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) comprises organic/inorganic nanostructures like dyesensitized solar cells, multilayers of small organic molecules, and phase-separated mixtures of organic materials (the bulkheterojunction solar cell). A review of several OPV technologies has been presented recently. [5] Light absorption in organic solar cells leads to the generation of excited, bound electron– hole pairs (often called excitons). To achieve substantial energy-conversion efficiencies, these excited electron–hole pairs need to be dissociated into free charge carriers with a high yield. Excitons can be dissociated at interfaces of materials with different electron affinities or by electric fields, or the dissociation can be trap or impurity assisted. Blending conjugated polymers with high-electron-affinity molecules like C60 (as in the bulk-heterojunction solar cell) has proven to be an efficient way for rapid exciton dissociation. Conjugated polymer–C60 interpenetrating networks exhibit ultrafast charge transfer (∼40 fs). [6,7] As there is no competing decay process of the optically excited electron–hole pair located on the polymer in this time regime, an optimized mixture with C60 converts absorbed photons to electrons with an efficiency close to 100%. [8] The associated bicontinuous interpenetrating network enables efficient collection of the separated charges at the electrodes. The bulk-heterojunction solar cell has attracted a lot of attention because of its potential to be a true low-cost photovoltaic technology. A simple coating or printing process would enable roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible, low-weight PV modules, which should permit cost-efficient production and the development of products for new markets, e.g., in the field of portable electronics. One major obstacle for the commercialization of bulk-heterojunction solar cells is the relatively small device efficiencies that have been demonstrated up to now. [5] The best energy-conversion efficiencies published for small-area devices approach 5%. [9–11] A detailed analysis of state-of-the-art bulk-heterojunction solar cells [8] reveals that the efficiency is limited by the low opencircuit voltage (Voc) delivered by these devices under illumination. Typically, organic semiconductors with a bandgap of about 2 eV are applied as photoactive materials, but the observed open-circuit voltages are only in the range of 0.5–1 V. There has long been a controversy about the origin of the Voc in conjugated polymer–fullerene solar cells. Following the classical thin-film solar-cell concept, the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) model was applied to bulk-heterojunction devices. In the MIM picture, Voc is simply equal to the work-function difference of the two metal electrodes. The model had to be modified after the observation of the strong influence of the reduction potential of the fullerene on the open-circuit volt

4,541 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A thin‐film, two‐layer organic photovoltaiccell has been fabricated from copper phthalocyanine and a perylene tetracarboxylic derivative. A power conversion efficiency of about 1% has been achieved under simulated AM2 illumination. A novel feature of the device is that the charge‐generation efficiency is relatively independent of the bias voltage, resulting in cells with fill factor values as high as 0.65. The interface between the two organic materials, rather than the electrode/organic contacts, is crucial in determining the photovoltaicproperties of the cell.

4,490 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202239
20211,256
20201,236
20191,313
20181,240
20171,335