scispace - formally typeset

Topic

Orientation column

About: Orientation column is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1142 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 130169 citation(s).


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This method is used to examine receptive fields of a more complex type and to make additional observations on binocular interaction and this approach is necessary in order to understand the behaviour of individual cells, but it fails to deal with the problem of the relationship of one cell to its neighbours.
Abstract: What chiefly distinguishes cerebral cortex from other parts of the central nervous system is the great diversity of its cell types and interconnexions. It would be astonishing if such a structure did not profoundly modify the response patterns of fibres coming into it. In the cat's visual cortex, the receptive field arrangements of single cells suggest that there is indeed a degree of complexity far exceeding anything yet seen at lower levels in the visual system. In a previous paper we described receptive fields of single cortical cells, observing responses to spots of light shone on one or both retinas (Hubel & Wiesel, 1959). In the present work this method is used to examine receptive fields of a more complex type (Part I) and to make additional observations on binocular interaction (Part II). This approach is necessary in order to understand the behaviour of individual cells, but it fails to deal with the problem of the relationship of one cell to its neighbours. In the past, the technique of recording evoked slow waves has been used with great success in studies of functional anatomy. It was employed by Talbot & Marshall (1941) and by Thompson, Woolsey & Talbot (1950) for mapping out the visual cortex in the rabbit, cat, and monkey. Daniel & Whitteiidge (1959) have recently extended this work in the primate. Most of our present knowledge of retinotopic projections, binocular overlap, and the second visual area is based on these investigations. Yet the method of evoked potentials is valuable mainly for detecting behaviour common to large populations of neighbouring cells; it cannot differentiate functionally between areas of cortex smaller than about 1 mm2. To overcome this difficulty a method has in recent years been developed for studying cells separately or in small groups during long micro-electrode penetrations through nervous tissue. Responses are correlated with cell location by reconstructing the electrode tracks from histological material. These techniques have been applied to

12,146 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat.
Abstract: 1. The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light. Most cells can be categorized as simple, complex, or hypercomplex, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat. On the average, however, receptive fields are smaller, and there is a greater sensitivity to changes in stimulus orientation. A small proportion of the cells are colour coded. 2. Evidence is presented for at least two independent systems of columns extending vertically from surface to white matter. Columns of the first type contain cells with common receptive-field orientations. They are similar to the orientation columns described in the cat, but are probably smaller in cross-sectional area. In the second system cells are aggregated into columns according to eye preference. The ocular dominance columns are larger than the orientation columns, and the two sets of boundaries seem to be independent. 3. There is a tendency for cells to be grouped according to symmetry of responses to movement; in some regions the cells respond equally well to the two opposite directions of movement of a line, but other regions contain a mixture of cells favouring one direction and cells favouring the other. 4. A horizontal organization corresponding to the cortical layering can also be discerned. The upper layers (II and the upper two-thirds of III) contain complex and hypercomplex cells, but simple cells are virtually absent. The cells are mostly binocularly driven. Simple cells are found deep in layer III, and in IV A and IV B. In layer IV B they form a large proportion of the population, whereas complex cells are rare. In layers IV A and IV B one finds units lacking orientation specificity; it is not clear whether these are cell bodies or axons of geniculate cells. In layer IV most cells are driven by one eye only; this layer consists of a mosaic with cells of some regions responding to one eye only, those of other regions responding to the other eye. Layers V and VI contain mostly complex and hypercomplex cells, binocularly driven. 5. The cortex is seen as a system organized vertically and horizontally in entirely different ways. In the vertical system (in which cells lying along a vertical line in the cortex have common features) stimulus dimensions such as retinal position, line orientation, ocular dominance, and perhaps directionality of movement, are mapped in sets of superimposed but independent mosaics. The horizontal system segregates cells in layers by hierarchical orders, the lowest orders (simple cells monocularly driven) located in and near layer IV, the higher orders in the upper and lower layers.

6,033 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present investigation, made in acute preparations, includes a study of receptive fields of cells in the cat's striate cortex, which resembled retinal ganglion-cell receptive fields, but the shape and arrangement of excitatory and inhibitory areas differed strikingly from the concentric pattern found in retinalganglion cells.
Abstract: In the central nervous system the visual pathway from retina to striate cortex provides an opportunity to observe and compare single unit responses at several distinct levels. Patterns of light stimuli most effective in influencing units at one level may no longer be the most effective at the next. From differences in responses at successive stages in the pathway one may hope to gain some understanding of the part each stage plays in visual perception. By shining small spots of light on the light-adapted cat retina Kuffler (1953) showed that ganglion cells have concentric receptive fields, with an 'on' centre and an 'off ' periphery, or vice versa. The 'on' and 'off' areas within a receptive field were found to be mutually antagonistic, and a spot restricted to the centre of the field was more effective than one covering the whole receptive field (Barlow, FitzHugh & Kuffler, 1957). In the freely moving lightadapted cat it was found that the great majority of cortical cells studied gave little or no response to light stimuli covering most of the animal's visual field, whereas small spots shone in a restricted retinal region often evoked brisk responses (Hubel, 1959). A moving spot of light often produced stronger responses than a stationary one, and sometimes a moving spot gave more activation for one direction than for the opposite. The present investigation, made in acute preparations, includes a study of receptive fields of cells in the cat's striate cortex. Receptive fields of the cells considered in this paper were divided into separate excitatory and inhibitory ('on' and 'off') areas. In this respect they resembled retinal ganglion-cell receptive fields. However, the shape and arrangement of excitatory and inhibitory areas differed strikingly from the concentric pattern found in retinal ganglion cells. An attempt was made to correlate responses to moving stimuli

4,035 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To UNDERSTAND VISION in physiological terms represents a formidable problem for the biologist, and one approach is to stimulate the retina with patterns of light while recording from single cells or fibers at various points along the visual pathway.
Abstract: To UNDERSTAND VISION in physiological terms represents a formidable problem for the biologist. I t am0 unts to learning how the nervous system handles incoming messages so that form, color, movement, and depth can be perceived and interpreted. One approach, perhaps the most direct, is to stimulate the retina with patterns of light while recording from single cells or fibers at various points along the visual pa thway. For each cell the optimum stimulus can be determined, and one can note the charac teristics common to cells at the next. each level in the visual pathway, and compare a given level with

2,549 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Visual cortex

18.8K papers, 1.2M citations

89% related
Neuron

22.5K papers, 1.3M citations

85% related
Synaptic plasticity

19.3K papers, 1.3M citations

84% related
Hippocampal formation

30.6K papers, 1.7M citations

83% related
NMDA receptor

24.2K papers, 1.3M citations

82% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20212
20208
20192
20189
201716
201616