Topic

# Oscillating Water Column

About: Oscillating Water Column is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1379 publications have been published within this topic receiving 18958 citations.

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of wave energy converters and air turbines can be found in this paper, together with a survey of theoretical, numerical and experimental modelling techniques of OWC converters.

Abstract: The ocean waves are an important renewable energy resource that, if extensively exploited, may contribute significantly to the electrical energy supply of countries with coasts facing the sea. A wide variety of technologies has been proposed, studied, and in some cases tested at full size in real ocean conditions. Oscillating-water-column (OWC) devices, of fixed structure or floating, are an important class of wave energy devices. A large part of wave energy converter prototypes deployed so far into the sea are of OWC type. In an OWC, there is a fixed or floating hollow structure, open to the sea below the water surface, that traps air above the inner free-surface. Wave action alternately compresses and decompresses the trapped air which is forced to flow through a turbine coupled to a generator. The paper presents a comprehensive review of OWC technologies and air turbines. This is followed by a survey of theoretical, numerical and experimental modelling techniques of OWC converters. Reactive phase control and phase control by latching are important issues that are addressed, together with turbine rotational speed control.

413 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a two-dimensional analysis based on linear surface-wave theory is developed for an oscillating-water-column wave-energy device in water of arbitrary constant depth, and the results show that air compressibility can be important in practice, and its effects may in general be satisfactorily represented by linearization.

Abstract: A two-dimensional analysis, based on linear surface-wave theory, is developed for an oscillating-water-column wave-energy device in water of arbitrary constant depth. The immersed part of the structure is assumed of shallow draught except for a submerged vertical reflecting wall. Both the cases of linear and nonlinear power take-off are considered. The results show that air compressibility can be important in practice, and its effects may in general be satisfactorily represented by linearization. The analysis indicates that using a turbine whose characteristic exhibits a phase difference between pressure and flow rate may be a method of strongly reducing the chamber length and turbine size with little change in the capability of energy extraction from regular waves. It was found in two examples of devices with strongly nonlinear power take-off that the maximum efficiency is only marginally inferior to what can be achieved in the linear case.

249 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a wave energy device consisting of a thin vertical surface-piercing barrier next to a vertical wall in finite depth water is considered, and power is extracted due to a normally incident wave forcing the free surface of the fluid between the barrier and the wall to oscillate.

Abstract: We consider a wave energy device consisting of a thin vertical surface-piercing barrier next to a vertical wall in finite depth water. Power is extracted due to a normally incident wave forcing the free surface of the fluid between the barrier and the wall to oscillate, in turn pumping the volume of air above the free surface through a uni-directional turbine housed at the opening of the device. Under the assumptions of linear water wave theory, the important hydrodynamic properties are expressible in terms of integral quantities of functions proportional to the fluid velocity under the barrier. These functions each satisfy integral equations, the solutions of which are approximated very accurately and efficiently using a Galerkin method as described in Porter and Evans [Porter, R. & Evans, D. V., Complementary approximations to wave scattering by vertical barriers. J. Fluid Mech., 294 (1995) 155–80].

225 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on two aspects of systems for wave energy conversion: how to model such systems, and how to control their motion, which is crucial for the primary power conversion.

Abstract: Current prognoses are that, unless counteracted by very strong political measures, the world will meet both energy shortage and climate crisis within a horizon of a few decades, both of which are strongly related to our dependence on fossil fuels. Renewable energy sources may be harvested sustainably, and developing technology for their exploitation therefore forms an obvious part of strategies to reduce emissions and secure energy supply. Wave energy is a resource with relatively high power density, readily available along the coasts, and thus coinciding with the areas where industry and people tend to be accumulated. In some regions this resource is large enough to form a significant part of the energy mix. The technology for harnessing the power of ocean waves is today still on the research and development stage. The challenge is to make a design where the costs of investment, operation and maintenance (in terms of money, resources and energy) can be justified by the availability and potential earnings. This thesis focuses on two aspects of systems for wave energy conversion: How to model such systems, which is important for understanding and design, and how to control their motion, which is crucial for the primary power conversion – the inevitable step that forms the basis for revenues and energy output from such a device. The dissertation is based on articles published in scientific conferences and journals, as well as an account for background of the undertaken research and the methods used. The bond graph modelling language has been chosen as a promising aid for the modelling of the power converter dynamics. It enables a systematic and transparent approach to the path from drawing board to mathematical equations. Examples show how energy conversion systems may be modelled and simulated within this framework. These include heave-motion models for a semi-submerged sphere, a platform/buoy two-body system and a smallscale oscillating water column (OWC), as well as wave-to-wire models of two made-up systems. The OWC model was also studied by laboratory experiments. A range of control strategies has been studied and compared by numerical simulation, and in one case also by laboratory experiments. These strategies include phase control by latching and by clutching, approximations to complex-conjugate control, and model predictive control (MPC). Constraint handling and real-time parameter tuning are discussed, too. The constrained optimal power absorption is investigated, and for the example of a semi-submerged heaving sphere in irregular waves it is found that MPC in combination with a Kalman filter predictor is able to provide an absorbed power in excess of 90% as compared to the non-causal (and hence not completely realisable) constrained optimum. Other causal controller implementations gives an absorbed power ranging from 10 to 90% of that achieved with MPC. The best performing control strategies, however, involve a large flow of reactive power through the machinery, which in normal irregular-wave operation may give peak-to-average power ratio as high as 25 and above. This represents a challenge to the design of machinery and controller. An interesting observation from the numerical simulations is the possibility of increased absorbed power in irregular waves as compared to regular waves having about the same wavelength characteristics and the same wave power level. An explanation is suggested for this phenomenon.

224 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to simulate the energy conversion from wave to turbine shaft of an oscillating-water-column (OWC) plant equipped with a Wells air-turbine and with a valve (in series or in parallel with the turbine) for air-flow control.

Abstract: A theoretical model is developed to simulate the energy conversion, from wave to turbine shaft, of an oscillating-water-column (OWC) plant equipped with a Wells air-turbine and with a valve (in series or in parallel with the turbine) for air-flow control. Numerical simulations show that the use of a control valve, by preventing or reducing the aerodynamic stall losses at the turbine rotor blades, may provide a way of substantially increasing the amount of energy produced by the plant, particularly at the higher incident wave power levels. From the hydrodynamic point of view, a by-pass valve or a throttle valve should be used depending on whether the wave energy absorbing system is over-damped or under-damped by the turbine.

224 citations