About: Ovary is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 18966 publications have been published within this topic receiving 516630 citations.
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TL;DR: Prenatal male and female reproductive tract development can occur in the absence of estradiol receptor-mediated responsiveness, and the uteri and vagina do not respond in the animals with the estrogen receptor gene disruption.
Abstract: Estrogen receptor and its ligand, estradiol, have long been thought to be essential for survival, fertility, and female sexual differentiation and development. Consistent with this proposed crucial role, no human estrogen receptor gene mutations are known, unlike the androgen receptor, where many loss of function mutations have been found. We have generated mutant mice lacking responsiveness to estradiol by disrupting the estrogen receptor gene by gene targeting. Both male and female animals survive to adulthood with normal gross external phenotypes. Females are infertile; males have a decreased fertility. Females have hypoplastic uteri and hyperemic ovaries with no detectable corpora lutea. In adult wild-type and heterozygous females, 3-day estradiol treatment at 40 micrograms/kg stimulates a 3- to 4-fold increase in uterine wet weight and alters vaginal cornification, but the uteri and vagina do not respond in the animals with the estrogen receptor gene disruption. Prenatal male and female reproductive tract development can therefore occur in the absence of estradiol receptor-mediated responsiveness.
TL;DR: The generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta -/-) is described by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of ERbeta in bone and cardiovascular homeostasis.
Abstract: Estrogens influence the differentiation and maintenance of reproductive tissues and affect lipid metabolism and bone remodeling. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified to date, ERα and ERβ. We previously generated and studied knockout mice lacking estrogen receptor α and reported severe reproductive and behavioral phenotypes including complete infertility of both male and female mice and absence of breast tissue development. Here we describe the generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor β (ERβ −/−) by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice lacking this receptor develop normally and are indistinguishable grossly and histologically as young adults from their littermates. RNA analysis and immunocytochemistry show that tissues from ERβ −/− mice lack normal ERβ RNA and protein. Breeding experiments with young, sexually mature females show that they are fertile and exhibit normal sexual behavior, but have fewer and smaller litters than wild-type mice. Superovulation experiments indicate that this reduction in fertility is the result of reduced ovarian efficiency. The mutant females have normal breast development and lactate normally. Young, sexually mature male mice show no overt abnormalities and reproduce normally. Older mutant males display signs of prostate and bladder hyperplasia. Our results indicate that ERβ is essential for normal ovulation efficiency but is not essential for female or male sexual differentiation, fertility, or lactation. Future experiments are required to determine the role of ERβ in bone and cardiovascular homeostasis.
TL;DR: A murine monoclonal antibody (OC125) has been developed that reacts with each of six epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines and with cryopreserved tumor tissue from 12 of 20 ovarian cancer patients, but does not bind to a variety of nonmalignant tissues, including adult and fetal ovary.
Abstract: A murine monoclonal antibody (OC125) has been developed that reacts with each of six epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines and with cryopreserved tumor tissue from 12 of 20 ovarian cancer patients. By contrast, the antibody does not bind to a variety of nonmalignant tissues, including adult and fetal ovary. OC125 reacts with only 1 of 14 cell lines derived from nonovarian neoplasms and has failed to react with cryostat sections from 12 nonovarian carcinomas.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue should be offered to all young women diagnosed with cancer and a livebirth after orthotopic autotransplantation of Cryopreserved ovarian tissue is described.
Abstract: The lifesaving treatment endured by cancer patients leads, in many women, to early menopause and subsequent infertility. In clinical situations for which chemotherapy needs to be started, ovarian tissue cryopreservation looks to be a promising option to restore fertility. In 1997, biopsy samples of ovarian cortex were taken from a woman with stage IV Hodgkin's lymphoma and cryopreserved before chemotherapy was initiated. After her cancer treatment, the patient had premature ovarian failure. METHODS: In 2003, after freeze-thawing, orthotopic autotransplantation of ovarian cortical tissue was done by laparoscopy. FINDINGS: 5 months after reimplantation, basal body temperature, menstrual cycles, vaginal ultrasonography, and hormone concentrations indicated recovery of regular ovulatory cycles. Laparoscopy at 5 months confirmed the ultrasonographic data and showed the presence of a follicle at the site of reimplantation, clearly situated outside the ovaries, both of which appeared atrophic. From 5 to 9 months, the patient had menstrual bleeding and development of a follicle or corpus luteum with every cycle. 11 months after reimplantation, human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations and vaginal echography confirmed a viable intrauterine pregnancy, which has resulted in a livebirth. INTERPRETATION: We have described a livebirth after orthotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Our findings suggest that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue should be offered to all young women diagnosed with cancer.
TL;DR: The final histologic findings after surgery (and cytologic ones when available) are to be considered in the staging, which may be modified by histopathologic as well as clinical or radiological evaluation.
Abstract: Ovarian cancer is staged surgically. There should be histologic confirmation of the disease. Operative findings, prior to tumor debulking, determine stage, which may be modified by histopathologic as well as clinical or radiological evaluation. Laparotomy and resection of the ovarian mass, as well as hysterectomy, form the basis for staging. Biopsies of all suspicious sites, such as omentum, mesentery, liver, diaphragm, pelvic and paraaortic nodes, are required. The final histologic findings after surgery (and cytologic ones when available) are to be considered in the staging. Clinical studies include routine radiology of the chest. Imaging studies and serum tumor markers may be helpful in both initial staging and follow-up of the tumors.
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