About: Oxidizing agent is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 30856 publications have been published within this topic receiving 296423 citations. The topic is also known as: oxidizer & oxidant.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The advantage of Co/PMS compared to the traditional Fenton Reagent is attributed primarily to the oxidizing strength of the radicals formed, since sulfate radicals are stronger oxidants than hydroxyl and the thermodynamics of the transition-metal-oxidant coupling.
Abstract: A highly efficient advanced oxidation process for the destruction of organic contaminants in water is reported. The technology is based on the cobalt-mediated decomposition of peroxymonosulfate that leads to the formation of very strong oxidizing species (sulfate radicals) in the aqueous phase. The system is a modification of the Fenton Reagent, since an oxidant is coupled with a transition metal in a similar manner. Sulfate radicals were identified with quenching studies using specific alcohols. The study was primarily focused on comparing the cobalt/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) reagent with the traditional Fenton Reagent [Fe(II)/H2O2] in the dark, at the pH range 2.0-9.0 with and without the presence of buffers such as phosphate and carbonate. Three model contaminants that show diversity in structure were tested: 2,4-dichlorophenol, atrazine, and naphthalene. Cobalt/peroxymonosulfate was consistently proven to be more efficient than the Fenton Reagent for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and atrazine, at all the conditions tested. At high pH values, where the efficiency of the Fenton Reagent was diminished, the reactivity of the Co/PMS system was sustained at high values. When naphthalene was treated with the two oxidizing systems in comparison, the Fenton Reagent demonstrated higher degradation efficiencies than cobalt/peroxymonosulfate at acidic pH, but, at higher pH (neutral), the latter was proven much more effective. The extent of mineralization, as total organic carbon removed,was also monitored, and again the Co/PMS reagent demonstrated higher efficiencies than the Fenton Reagent. Cobalt showed true catalytic activity in the overall process, since extremely low concentrations (in the range of microg/L) were sufficient for the decomposition of the oxidant and thus the radical generation. The advantage of Co/PMS compared to the traditional Fenton Reagent is attributed primarily to the oxidizing strength of the radicals formed, since sulfate radicals are stronger oxidants than hydroxyl and the thermodynamics of the transition-metal-oxidant coupling.
TL;DR: The chemistry of copper is extremely rich because it can easily access Cu0, CuI, CuII, and CuIII oxidation states allowing it to act through one-electron or two-Electron processes, which feature confer a remarkably broad range of activities allowing copper to catalyze the oxidation and oxidative union of many substrates.
Abstract: The chemistry of copper is extremely rich because it can easily access Cu0, CuI, CuII, and CuIII oxidation states allowing it to act through one-electron or two-electron processes. As a result, both radical pathways and powerful two-electron bond forming pathways via organmetallic intermediates, similar to those of palladium, can occur. In addition, the different oxidation states of copper associate well with a large number of different functional groups via Lewis acid interactions or π-coordination. In total, these feature confer a remarkably broad range of activities allowing copper to catalyze the oxidation and oxidative union of many substrates. Oxygen is a highly atom economical, environmentally benign, and abundant oxidant, which makes it ideal in many ways.1 The high activation energies in the reactions of oxygen require that catalysts be employed.2 In combination with molecular oxygen, the chemistry of copper catalysis increases exponentially since oxygen can act as either a sink for electrons (oxidase activity) and/or as a source of oxygen atoms that are incorporated into the product (oxygenase activity). The oxidation of copper with oxygen is a facile process allowing catalytic turnover in net oxidative processes and ready access to the higher CuIII oxidation state, which enables a range of powerful transformations including two-electron reductive elimination to CuI. Molecular oxygen is also not hampered by toxic byproducts, being either reduced to water, occasionally via H2O2 (oxidase activity) or incorporated into the target structure with high atom economy (oxygenase activity). Such oxidations using oxygen or air (21% oxygen) have been employed safely in numerous commodity chemical continuous and batch processes.3 However, batch reactors employing volatile hydrocarbon solvents require that oxygen concentrations be kept low in the head space (typically <5–11%) to avoid flammable mixtures, which can limit the oxygen concentration in the reaction mixture.4,5,6 A number of alternate approaches have been developed allowing oxidation chemistry to be used safely across a broader array of conditions. For example, use of carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen as a diluent leads to reduced flammability.5 Alternately, water can be added to moderate the flammability allowing even pure oxygen to be employed.6 New reactor designs also allow pure oxygen to be used instead of diluted oxygen by maintaining gas bubbles in the solvent, which greatly improves reaction rates and prevents the build up of higher concentrations of oxygen in the head space.4a,7 Supercritical carbon dioxide has been found to be advantageous as a solvent due its chemical inertness towards oxidizing agents and its complete miscibility with oxygen or air over a wide range of temperatures.8 An number of flow technologies9 including flow reactors,10 capillary flow reactors,11 microchannel/microstructure structure reactors,12 and membrane reactors13 limit the amount of or afford separation of hydrocarbon/oxygen vapor phase thereby reducing the potential for explosions. Enzymatic oxidizing systems based upon copper that exploit the many advantages and unique aspects of copper as a catalyst and oxygen as an oxidant as described in the preceding paragraphs are well known. They represent a powerful set of catalysts able to direct beautiful redox chemistry in a highly site-selective and stereoselective manner on simple as well as highly functionalized molecules. This ability has inspired organic chemists to discover small molecule catalysts that can emulate such processes. In addition, copper has been recognized as a powerful catalyst in several industrial processes (e.g. phenol polymerization, Glaser-Hay alkyne coupling) stimulating the study of the fundamental reaction steps and the organometallic copper intermediates. These studies have inspiried the development of nonenzymatic copper catalysts. For these reasons, the study of copper catalysis using molecular oxygen has undergone explosive growth, from 30 citations per year in the 1980s to over 300 citations per year in the 2000s. A number of elegant reviews on the subject of catalytic copper oxidation chemistry have appeared. Most recently, reviews provide selected coverage of copper catalysts14 or a discussion of their use in the aerobic functionalization of C–H bonds.15 Other recent reviews cover copper and other metal catalysts with a range of oxidants, including oxygen, but several reaction types are not covered.16 Several other works provide a valuable overview of earlier efforts in the field.17 This review comprehensively covers copper catalyzed oxidation chemistry using oxygen as the oxidant up through 2011. Stoichiometric reactions with copper are discussed, as necessary, to put the development of the catalytic processes in context. Mixed metal systems utilizing copper, such as palladium catalyzed Wacker processes, are not included here. Decomposition reactions involving copper/oxygen and model systems of copper enzymes are not discussed exhaustively. To facilitate analysis of the reactions under discussion, the current mechanistic hypothesis is provided for each reaction. As our understanding of the basic chemical steps involving copper improve, it is expected that many of these mechanisms will evolve accordingly.
TL;DR: The different behaviors in restructuring and chemical response of Rh.5.5Pd0.5 and Pt.5 nanoparticle catalysts under the same reaction conditions illustrates the flexibility and tunability of the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles catalysts during catalytic reactions.
Abstract: Heterogeneous catalysts that contain bimetallic nanoparticles may undergo segregation of the metals, driven by oxidizing and reducing environments. The structure and composition of core-shell Rh 0.5 Pd 0.5 and Pt 0.5 Pd 0.5 nanoparticle catalysts were studied in situ, during oxidizing, reducing, and catalytic reactions involving NO, O 2 , CO, and H 2 by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at near-ambient pressure. The Rh 0.5 Pd 0.5 nanoparticles underwent dramatic and reversible changes in composition and chemical state in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. In contrast, no substantial segregation of Pd or Pt atoms was found in Pt 0.5 Pd 0.5 nanoparticles. The different behaviors in restructuring and chemical response of Rh 0.5 Pd 0.5 and Pt 0.5 Pd 0.5 nanoparticle catalysts under the same reaction conditions illustrates the flexibility and tunability of the structure of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts during catalytic reactions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple method of calculating the elemental stoichiometric coefficient, φe has been developed, which can easily be applied to multicomponent fuel-oxidizer compositions.
Abstract: A simple method of calculating the elemental stoichiometric coefficient, φe has been developed, which can easily be applied to multicomponent fuel-oxidizer compositions. The method correctly predicts whether a mixture is fuel lean, fuel rich, or stoichiometrically balanced. The total composition of oxidizing (or reducing) elements of the mixture appears to be related to the thermochemistry of the system. For the reaction of ammonium perchlorate and an organic fuel the heat of reaction varies linearly with the total composition of oxidizing elements. The physical significance of such a correlation based on thermochemical reasoning is highlighted in the paper.
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