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Page replacement algorithm

About: Page replacement algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1173 publications have been published within this topic receiving 29480 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article shows that move-to-front is within a constant factor of optimum among a wide class of list maintenance rules, and analyzes the amortized complexity of LRU, showing that its efficiency differs from that of the off-line paging rule by a factor that depends on the size of fast memory.
Abstract: In this article we study the amortized efficiency of the “move-to-front” and similar rules for dynamically maintaining a linear list. Under the assumption that accessing the ith element from the front of the list takes t(i) time, we show that move-to-front is within a constant factor of optimum among a wide class of list maintenance rules. Other natural heuristics, such as the transpose and frequency count rules, do not share this property. We generalize our results to show that move-to-front is within a constant factor of optimum as long as the access cost is a convex function. We also study paging, a setting in which the access cost is not convex. The paging rule corresponding to move-to-front is the “least recently used” (LRU) replacement rule. We analyze the amortized complexity of LRU, showing that its efficiency differs from that of the off-line paging rule (Belady's MIN algorithm) by a factor that depends on the size of fast memory. No on-line paging algorithm has better amortized performance.

2,378 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1993
TL;DR: The LRU-K algorithm surpasses conventional buffering algorithms in discriminating between frequently and infrequently referenced pages, and adapts in real time to changing patterns of access.
Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach to database disk buffering, called the LRU-K method The basic idea of LRU-K is to keep track of the times of the last K references to popular database pages, using this information to statistically estimate the interarrival times of references on a page by page basis Although the LRU-K approach performs optimal statistical inference under relatively standard assumptions, it is fairly simple and incurs little bookkeeping overhead As we demonstrate with simulation experiments, the LRU-K algorithm surpasses conventional buffering algorithms in discriminating between frequently and infrequently referenced pages In fact, LRU-K can approach the behavior of buffering algorithms in which page sets with known access frequencies are manually assigned to different buffer pools of specifically tuned sizes Unlike such customized buffering algorithms however, the LRU-K method is self-tuning, and does not rely on external hints about workload characteristics Furthermore, the LRU-K algorithm adapts in real time to changing patterns of access

1,033 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The author discusses the history and present situation of operating systems, as well as some of the techniques used to design and implement these systems.
Abstract: Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? 1.2 HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS 1.3 OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS 1.4 SYSTEM CALLS 1.5 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE 1.6 OUTLINE OF THE REST OF THIS BOOK 1.7 SUMMARY CHAPTER 2 PROCESSES 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO PROCESSES 2.2 INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION 2.3 CLASSICAL IPC PROBLEMS 2.4 SCHEDULING 2.5 OVERVIEW OF PROCESSES IN MINIX 3 2.6 IMPLEMENTATION OF PROCESSES IN MINIX 3 2.7 THE SYSTEM TASK IN MINIX 3 2.8 THE CLOCK TASK IN MINIX 3 2.9 SUMMARY CHAPTER 3 INPUT/OUTPUT 3.1 PRINCIPLES OF I/O HARDWARE 3.2 PRINCIPLES OF I/O SOFTWARE 3.3 DEADLOCKS 3.4 OVERVIEW OF I/O IN MINIX 3 3.5 BLOCK DEVICES IN MINIX 3 3.6 RAM DISKS 3.7 DISKS 3.8 TERMINALS 3.9 SUMMARY CHAPTER 4 MEMORY MANAGEMENT 4.1 BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 4.2 SWAPPING 4.3 VIRTUAL MEMORY 4.4 PAGE REPLACEMENT ALGORITHMS 4.5 DESIGN ISSUES FOR PAGING SYSTEMS 4.6 SEGMENTATION 4.7 OVERVIEW OF THE MINIX 3 PROCESS MANAGER 4.8 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIX 3 PROCESS MANAGER 4.9 SUMMARY CHAPTER 5 FILE SYSTEMS 5.1 FILES 5.2 DIRECTORIES 5.3 FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 5.4 SECURITY 5.5 PROTECTION MECHANISMS 5.6 OVERVIEW OF THE MINIX 3 FILE SYSTEM 5.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIX 3 FILE SYSTEM 5.8 SUMMARY CHAPTER 6 READING LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 6.1 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING 6.2 ALPHABETICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A - INSTALLING MINIX 3 APPENDIX B - MINIX 3 SOURCE CODE LISTING APPENDIX C - INDEX TO FILES INDEX

572 citations

Patent
08 Jan 1999
TL;DR: A digital rights management operating system as discussed by the authors protects rights-managed data, such as downloaded content, from access by untrusted programs while the data is loaded into memory or on a page file as a result of the execution of a trusted application accessing the memory.
Abstract: A digital rights management operating system protects rights-managed data, such as downloaded content, from access by untrusted programs while the data is loaded into memory or on a page file as a result of the execution of a trusted application that accesses the memory. To protect the rights-managed data resident in memory, the digital rights management operating system refuses to load an untrusted program into memory while the trusted application is executing or removes the data from memory before loading the untrusted program. If the untrusted program executes at the operating system level, such as a debugger, the digital rights management operating system renounces a trusted identity created for it by the computer processor when the computer was booted. To protect the rights-managed data on the page file, the digital rights management operating system prohibits raw access to the page file, or erases the data from the page file before allowing such access. Alternatively, the digital rights management operating system can encrypt the rights-managed data prior to writing it to the page file. The digital rights management operating system also limits the functions the user can perform on the rights-managed data and the trusted application, and can provide a trusted clock used in place of the standard computer clock.

493 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The marking algorithm is developed, a randomized on-line algorithm for the paging problem, which it is proved that its expected cost on any sequence of requests is within a factor of 2Hk of optimum.

489 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20216
20209
20192
20189
201718
201632