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Panama

About: Panama is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 581 publications have been published within this topic receiving 9451 citations. The topic is also known as: Republic of Panama & pa.


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Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jan 2002-Science
TL;DR: It is found that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia and that patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model, suggesting that dispersal limitation, with speciation, influences species turnover.
Abstract: The high alpha-diversity of tropical forests has been amply documented, but beta-diversity-how species composition changes with distance-has seldom been studied. We present quantitative estimates of beta-diversity for tropical trees by comparing species composition of plots in lowland terra firme forest in Panama, Ecuador, and Peru. We compare observations with predictions derived from a neutral model in which habitat is uniform and only dispersal and speciation influence species turnover. We find that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia and that patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model. In Panama, habitat variation appears to increase species turnover relative to Amazonia, where unexpectedly low turnover over great distances suggests that population densities of some species are bounded by as yet unidentified processes. At intermediate scales in both regions, observations can be matched by theory, suggesting that dispersal limitation, with speciation, influences species turnover.

1,254 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Puerto Rico has nearly as many bird species per layer as Panama and the temperate regions, but the Puerto Rican species appear to recognize fewer layers and certainly subdivide habitats much less, so different habitats are likely to have quite similar species in Puerto Rico, unlike Panama and temperate United States.
Abstract: Breeding bird censuses were made in Puerto Rico, Panama, and temperate United States, and a profile of foliage density was made for each. Using information theory formulae both diversity indices and measurements of difference between censuses and difference between habitats can be made. Based on these, the following can be verified directly from the data: 1. Puerto Rico has nearly as many bird species per layer as Panama and the temperate regions, but the Puerto Rican species appear to recognize fewer layers and certainly subdivide habitats much less. Thus different habitats are likely to have quite similar species in Puerto Rico, unlike Panama and temperate United States.

485 citations

Book
21 Sep 1976
TL;DR: In this article, a guide to the birds of panama to review, not only check out, however additionally download them and even check out online, as well as rar.
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248 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reproductive ecology of two major reef-building corals in the eastern Pacific was investigated between 1984 and 1990 in Costa Rica, Panama (Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Panama), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) following the 1982-83 El Nino disturbance as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Reproductive ecology of two major reef-building corals in the eastern Pacific [Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) andPocillopora elegans Dana] was investigated between 1984 and 1990 in Costa Rica, Panama (Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Panama), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) following the 1982–83 El Nino disturbance Mature spermatocytes and oocytes were found in both species and were usually present in the same polyp in nearly equal ratios Numerous zooxanthellae were observed in mature, unfertilized oocytes Although spawning in field populations was not observed, it is likely that both pocilloporids are simultaneous hermaphroditic spawners, as evidenced by the disappearance of mature gametes after full moon This is in contrast with most known pocilloporid corals that brood and release planula larvae Corals were reproductively most active in the thermally stable environments of Costa Rica and the Gulf of Chiriqui (Panama) where 32 to 90% of all colonies contained gametes In the moderately varying thermal conditions in the Galapagos Islands, 16 to 40% of colonies contained gametes, and in the pronounced seasonal upwelling environment of the Pearl Islands (Panama) only 6 to 18% of colonies contained gametes Year-round reproduction occurred in Costa Rica and the Gulf of Chiriqui, whereas reproduction was confined to warm periods in the seasonally varying environments of the Galapagos Islands and the Gulf of Panama Pocilloporid corals in Costa Rica and the Gulf of Chiriqui demonstrated lunar spawning activity, with mature gametes present a few days before and after full moon Some limited spawning may have occurred also at new moon While frequent gamete maturation has been demonstrated in this study, the relatively low rates of larval recruitment occurring on eastern Pacific coral reefs disturbed by the 1982–83 El Nino suggest that the recovery of important frame-building corals could be greatly prolonged

247 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023156
2022331
202113
202010
20199
201812