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# Parallel algorithm

About: Parallel algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23631 publications have been published within this topic receiving 452628 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented, which can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors.

32,670 citations

01 May 1993

TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.

Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

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TL;DR: The main purpose is to update the designers and users of parallel numerical algorithms with the latest research in the field and present the novel ideas, results and work in progress and advancing state-of-the-art techniques in the area of parallel and distributed computing for numerical and computational optimization problems in scientific and engineering application.

Abstract: Edited by Tianruo Yang Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrech, Netherlands, 1999, 248 pp. ISBN 0-7923-8588-8, $135.00 This book contains a selection of contributed and invited papers presented and the workshop Frontiers of Parallel Numerical Computations and Applications, in the IEEE 7th Symposium on the Frontiers on Massively Parallel Computers (Frontiers '99) at Annapolis, Maryland, February 20-25, 1999. Its main purpose is to update the designers and users of parallel numerical algorithms with the latest research in the field. A broad spectrum of topics on parallel numerical computations, with applications to some of the more challenging engineering problems, is covered. Parallel algorithm designers and engineers who use extensively parallel numerical computations, as well as graduate students in Computer Science, Scientific Computing, various engineering fields and applied mathematics should benefit from reading it. The first part is addressed to a larger audience and presents papers on parallel numerical algorithms. Two new libraries are presented: PSPASSES and PoLAPACK. PSPASSES is a collection of parallel direct solvers, for sparse symmetric positive definite linear systems, which are characterized by high performance and good scalability. PoLAPACK library contains LU and QR codes based on a new blocking strategy that guarantees good performance regardless of the physical block size. Next, an efficient approach to solving stiff ordinary differential equations by diagonal implicitly iterated Runge-Kutta (DIIRK) method is described. DIIRK renders a fast parallel implementation due to a reduced number of function evaluation and an automatic stepsize control mechanism. Finally, minimization of sufficiently smooth non-linear functionals is sought via parallel space decomposition. Here, a theoretical background of the problem and two equivalent algorithms are presented. New research directions for classical solvers are treated in the next three papers: first, reduction of the global synchronization in the biconjugate gradient method, second, a new more efficient Jacobi ordering for the multiple-port hypercubes, and finally, an analysis of the theoretical performance of an improved version of the Quasi-minimal residual method. Parallel numerical applications constitute the second part of the book, with results from fluid mechanics, material sciences, applications to signal and image processing, dynamic systems, semiconductor technology and electronic circuits and systems design. With one exception, the authors expose in detail parallel implementations of the algorithms and numerical results. First, a 3D-elasticity problem is solved using an additive overlapping domain decomposition algorithm. Second, an overlapping mesh technique is used in a parallel solver for the compressible flow problem. Then, a parallel version of a complex numerical algorithm to solve a lubrication problem studied in tribology is introduced. Next, a timid approach to parallel computing of the cavity flow by the finite element method is presented. The problem solved is rather small for today's needs and only up to 6 processors are used. This is also the only paper that does not present results from numerical experiments. The remaining applications discussed in the subsequent chapters are: large scale multidisciplinary design optimization problem with application to the design of a supersonic commercial aircraft, a report on progress in parallel solution of an electromagnetic scattering problem using boundary integral methods and an optimal solution to the convection-diffusion equation modeling the concentration of a pollutant in the air. The book is of definite interest to readers who keep up-to-date with the parallel numerical computation research. The main purpose, to present the novel ideas, results and work in progress and advancing state-of-the-art techniques in the area of parallel and distributed computing for numerical and computational optimization problems in scientific and engineering application is clearly achieved. However, due to its content it cannot serve as a textbook for a computer science or engineering class. Overall, is a reference type book to be kept by specialists and in a library rather than a book to be purchased for self-introduction to the field. Most of the papers presented are results of ongoing research and so they rely heavily on previous results. On the other hand, with only one exception, the results presented in the papers are a great source of information for the researchers currently involved in the field. Michelle Pal, Los Alamos National Laboratory

4,696 citations

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TL;DR: The general regression neural network (GRNN) is a one-pass learning algorithm with a highly parallel structure that provides smooth transitions from one observed value to another.

Abstract: A memory-based network that provides estimates of continuous variables and converges to the underlying (linear or nonlinear) regression surface is described. The general regression neural network (GRNN) is a one-pass learning algorithm with a highly parallel structure. It is shown that, even with sparse data in a multidimensional measurement space, the algorithm provides smooth transitions from one observed value to another. The algorithmic form can be used for any regression problem in which an assumption of linearity is not justified. >

4,091 citations

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01 Sep 1991

TL;DR: This chapter discusses sorting on a Linear Array with a Systolic and Semisystolic Model of Computation, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of manually sorting arrays.

Abstract: Preface Acknowledgments Notation 1 Arrays and Trees 1.1 Elementary Sorting and Counting 1.1.1 Sorting on a Linear Array Assessing the Performance of the Algorithm Sorting N Numbers with Fewer Than N Processors 1.1.2 Sorting in the Bit Model 1.1.3 Lower Bounds 1.1.4 A Counterexample-Counting 1.1.5 Properties of the Fixed-Connection Network Model 1.2 Integer Arithmetic 1.2.1 Carry-Lookahead Addition 1.2.2 Prefix Computations-Segmented Prefix Computations 1.2.3 Carry-Save Addition 1.2.4 Multiplication and Convolution 1.2.5 Division and Newton Iteration 1.3 Matrix Algorithms 1.3.1 Elementary Matrix Products 1.3.2 Algorithms for Triangular Matrices 1.3.3 Algorithms for Tridiagonal Matrices -Odd-Even Reduction -Parallel Prefix Algorithms 1.3.4 Gaussian Elimination 1.3.5 Iterative Methods -Jacobi Relaxation -Gauss-Seidel Relaxation Finite Difference Methods -Multigrid Methods 1.4 Retiming and Systolic Conversion 1.4.1 A Motivating Example-Palindrome Recognition 1.4.2 The Systolic and Semisystolic Model of Computation 1.4.3 Retiming Semisystolic Networks 1.4.4 Conversion of a Semisystolic Network into a Systolic Network 1.4.5 The Special Case of Broadcasting 1.4.6 Retiming the Host 1.4.7 Design by Systolic Conversion-A Summary 1.5 Graph Algorithms 1.5.1 Transitive Closure 1.5.2 Connected Components 1.5.3 Shortest Paths 1.5.4 Breadth-First Spanning Trees 1.5.5 Minimum Weight Spanning Trees 1.6 Sorting Revisited 1.6.1 Odd-Even Transposition Sort on a Linear Array 1.6.2 A Simple Root-N(log N + 1)-Step Sorting Algorithm 1.6.3 A (3 Root- N + o(Root-N))-Step Sorting Algorithm 1.6.4 A Matching Lower Bound 1.7 Packet Routing 1.7.1 Greedy Algorithms 1.7.2 Average-Case Analysis of Greedy Algorithms -Routing N Packets to Random Destinations -Analysis of Dynamic Routing Problems 1.7.3 Randomized Routing Algorithms 1.7.4 Deterministic Algorithms with Small Queues 1.7.5 An Off-line Algorithm 1.7.6 Other Routing Models and Algorithms 1.8 Image Analysis and Computational Geometry 1.8.1 Component-Labelling Algorithms -Levialdi's Algorithm -An O (Root-N)-Step Recursive Algorithm 1.8.2 Computing Hough Transforms 1.8.3 Nearest-Neighbor Algorithms 1.8.4 Finding Convex Hulls 1.9 Higher-Dimensional Arrays 1.9.1 Definitions and Properties 1.9.2 Matrix Multiplication 1.9.3 Sorting 1.9.4 Packet Routing 1.9.5 Simulating High-Dimensional Arrays on Low-Dimensional Arrays 1.10 problems 1.11 Bibliographic Notes 2 Meshes of Trees 2.1 The Two-Dimensional Mesh of Trees 2.1.1 Definition and Properties 2.1.2 Recursive Decomposition 2.1.3 Derivation from KN,N 2.1.4 Variations 2.1.5 Comparison With the Pyramid and Multigrid 2.2 Elementary O(log N)-Step Algorithms 2.2.1 Routing 2.2.2 Sorting 2.2.3 Matrix-Vector Multiplication 2.2.4 Jacobi Relaxation 2.2.5 Pivoting 2.2.6 Convolution 2.2.7 Convex Hull 2.3 Integer Arithmetic 2.3.1 Multiplication 2.3.2 Division and Chinese Remaindering 2.3.3 Related Problems -Iterated Products -Rooting Finding 2.4 Matrix Algorithms 2.4.1 The Three-Dimensional Mesh of Trees 2.4.2 Matrix Multiplication 2.4.3 Inverting Lower Triangular Matrices 2.4.4 Inverting Arbitrary Matrices -Csanky's Algorithm -Inversion by Newton Iteration 2.4.5 Related Problems 2.5 Graph Algorithms 2.5.1 Minimum-Weight Spanning Trees 2.5.2 Connected Components 2.5.3 Transitive Closure 2.5.4 Shortest Paths 2.5.5 Matching Problems 2.6 Fast Evaluation of Straight-Line Code 2.6.1 Addition and Multiplication Over a Semiring 2.6.2 Extension to Codes with Subtraction and Division 2.6.3 Applications 2.7 Higher-Dimensional meshes of Trees 2.7.1 Definitions and Properties 2.7.2 The Shuffle-Tree Graph 2.8 Problems 2.9 Bibliographic Notes 3 Hypercubes and Related Networks 3.1 The Hypercube 3.1.1 Definitions and Properties 3.1.2 Containment of Arrays -Higher-Dimensional Arrays -Non-Power-of-2 Arrays 3.1.3 Containment of Complete Binary Trees 3.1.4 Embeddings of Arbitrary Binary Trees -Embeddings with Dilation 1 and Load O(M over N + log N) -Embeddings with Dilation O(1) and Load O (M over N + 1) -A Review of One-Error-Correcting Codes -Embedding Plog N into Hlog N 3.1.5 Containment of Meshes of Trees 3.1.6 Other Containment Results 3.2 The Butterfly, Cube-Connected-Cycles , and Benes Network 3.2.1 Definitions and Properties 3.2.2 Simulation of Arbitrary Networks 3.2.3 Simulation of Normal Hypercube Algorithms 3.2.4 Some Containment and Simulation Results 3.3 The Shuffle-Exchange and de Bruijn Graphs 3.3.1 Definitions and Properties 3.3.2 The Diaconis Card Tricks 3.3.3 Simulation of Normal Hypercube Algorithms 3.3.4 Similarities with the Butterfly 3.3.5 Some Containment and Simulation Results 3.4 Packet-Routing Algorithms 3.4.1 Definitions and Routing Models 3.4.2 Greedy Routing Algorithms and Worst-Case Problems 3.4.3 Packing, Spreading, and Monotone Routing Problems -Reducing a Many-to-Many Routing Problem to a Many-to-One Routing Problem -Reducing a Routing Problem to a Sorting Problem 3.4.4 The Average-Case Behavior of the Greedy Algorithm -Bounds on Congestion -Bounds on Running Time -Analyzing Non-Predictive Contention-Resolution Protocols 3.4.5 Converting Worst-Case Routing Problems into Average-Case Routing Problems -Hashing -Randomized Routing 3.4.6 Bounding Queue Sizes -Routing on Arbitrary Levelled Networks 3.4.7 Routing with Combining 3.4.8 The Information Dispersal Approach to Routing -Using Information Dispersal to Attain Fault-Tolerance -Finite Fields and Coding Theory 3.4.9 Circuit-Switching Algorithms 3.5 Sorting 3.5.1 Odd-Even Merge Sort -Constructing a Sorting Circuit with Depth log N(log N +1)/2 3.5.2 Sorting Small Sets 3.5.3 A Deterministic O(log N log log N)-Step Sorting Algorithm 3.5.4 Randomized O(log N)-Step Sorting Algorithms -A Circuit with Depth 7.45 log N that Usually Sorts 3.6 Simulating a Parallel Random Access Machine 3.6.1 PRAM Models and Shared Memories 3.6.2 Randomized Simulations Based on Hashing 3.6.3 Deterministic Simulations using Replicated Data 3.6.4 Using Information Dispersal to Improve Performance 3.7 The Fast Fourier Transform 3.7.1 The Algorithm 3.7.2 Implementation on the Butterfly and Shuffle-Exchange Graph 3.7.3 Application to Convolution and Polynomial Arithmetic 3.7.4 Application to Integer Multiplication 3.8 Other Hypercubic Networks 3.8.1 Butterflylike Networks -The Omega Network -The Flip Network -The Baseline and Reverse Baseline Networks -Banyan and Delta Networks -k-ary Butterflies 3.8.2 De Bruijn-Type Networks -The k-ary de Bruijn Graph -The Generalized Shuffle-Exchange Graph 3.9 Problems 3.10 Bibliographic Notes Bibliography Index Lemmas, Theorems, and Corollaries Author Index Subject Index

2,895 citations