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Paramagnetism

About: Paramagnetism is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 34911 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 638644 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sebastian Mühlbauer1, B. Binz2, F. Jonietz1, Christian Pfleiderer1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
13 Feb 2009-Science
TL;DR: This study experimentally establishes magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry as an arena for new forms of crystalline order composed of topologically stable spin states in the chiral itinerant-electron magnet MnSi.
Abstract: Skyrmions represent topologically stable field configurations with particle-like properties. We used neutron scattering to observe the spontaneous formation of a two-dimensional lattice of skyrmion lines, a type of magnetic vortex, in the chiral itinerant-electron magnet MnSi. The skyrmion lattice stabilizes at the border between paramagnetism and long-range helimagnetic order perpendicular to a small applied magnetic field regardless of the direction of the magnetic field relative to the atomic lattice. Our study experimentally establishes magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry as an arena for new forms of crystalline order composed of topologically stable spin states.

2,803 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2005-Nature Materials
TL;DR: It is proposed thatferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band.
Abstract: Dilute ferromagnetic oxides having Curie temperatures far in excess of 300 K and exceptionally large ordered moments per transition-metal cation challenge our understanding of magnetism in solids. These materials are high-k dielectrics with degenerate or thermally activated n-type semiconductivity. Conventional super-exchange or double-exchange interactions cannot produce long-range magnetic order at concentrations of magnetic cations of a few percent. We propose that ferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band. The Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation varies as (xdelta)(1/2) where x and delta are the concentrations of magnetic cations and donors, respectively. High Curie temperatures arise only when empty minority-spin or majority-spin d states lie at the Fermi level in the impurity band. The magnetic phase diagram includes regions of semiconducting and metallic ferromagnetism, cluster paramagnetism, spin glass and canted antiferromagnetism.

2,590 citations


Book
01 Jan 1961-
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction 2. Angular momentum and related matters 3. Electromagnetic radiation 4. The structure of free atoms and ions 5. Magnetic effects in atomic structure 6. Groups and their matrix representations 7. Complex ions 8. Crystal-field theory and the weak-field coupling scheme 9. The strong-filed coupling scheme 10. Paramagnetic susceptibilities 11. Optical spectra and thermodynamic properties 12. Paramagnetic resonance Appendices 1-9 Bibliography Indexes.

2,477 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jul 1966-Physical Review
Abstract: A previously obtained solution of the linearized Gor'kov equations for the upper critical magnetic field ${H}_{c2}$ of a bulk type-II superconductor is extended to include the effects of Pauli spin paramagnetism and spin-orbit impurity scattering. To carry out the calculation, it is necessary to introduce an approximation which assumes that spin-orbit scattering is infrequent in comparison with spin-independent scattering. It is found that spin-orbit scattering counteracts the effects of the spin paramagnetism in limiting the critical field and improves agreement between theory and experiment.

2,233 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Seiji Ogawa1, Tso-Ming Lee1, Asha S. Nayak1, Asha S. Nayak2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: At high magnetic fields (7 and 8.4 T), water proton magnetic resonance images of brains of live mice and rats under pentobarbital anesthetization have been measured by a gradient echo pulse sequence with a spatial resolution of 65 × 65‐ μm pixel size and 700‐μm slice thickness.
Abstract: At high magnetic fields (7 and 8.4 T), water proton magnetic resonance images of brains of live mice and rats under pentobarbital anesthetization have been measured by a gradient echo pulse sequence with a spatial resolution of 65 x 65-microns pixel size and 700-microns slice thickness. The contrast in these images depicts anatomical details of the brain by numerous dark lines of various sizes. These lines are absent in the image taken by the usual spin echo sequence. They represent the blood vessels in the image slice and appear when the deoxyhemoglobin content in the red cells increases. This contrast is most pronounced in an anoxy brain but not present in a brain with diamagnetic oxy or carbon monoxide hemoglobin. The local field induced by the magnetic susceptibility change in the blood due to the paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin causes the intra voxel dephasing of the water signals of the blood and the surrounding tissue. This oxygenation-dependent contrast is appreciable in high field images with high spatial resolution.

2,176 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202225
2021666
2020845
2019745
2018783
20171,000