Topic

# Partial differential equation

About: Partial differential equation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 70811 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1626398 citations. The topic is also known as: PDE.

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01 Jan 1941

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a theory for linear PDEs: Sobolev spaces Second-order elliptic equations Linear evolution equations, Hamilton-Jacobi equations and systems of conservation laws.

Abstract: Introduction Part I: Representation formulas for solutions: Four important linear partial differential equations Nonlinear first-order PDE Other ways to represent solutions Part II: Theory for linear partial differential equations: Sobolev spaces Second-order elliptic equations Linear evolution equations Part III: Theory for nonlinear partial differential equations: The calculus of variations Nonvariational techniques Hamilton-Jacobi equations Systems of conservation laws Appendices Bibliography Index.

25,734 citations

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11 Feb 1992

TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered the generation and representation of a generator of C0-Semigroups of Bounded Linear Operators and derived the following properties: 1.1 Generation and Representation.

Abstract: 1 Generation and Representation.- 1.1 Uniformly Continuous Semigroups of Bounded Linear Operators.- 1.2 Strongly Continuous Semigroups of Bounded Linear Operators.- 1.3 The Hille-Yosida Theorem.- 1.4 The Lumer Phillips Theorem.- 1.5 The Characterization of the Infinitesimal Generators of C0 Semigroups.- 1.6 Groups of Bounded Operators.- 1.7 The Inversion of the Laplace Transform.- 1.8 Two Exponential Formulas.- 1.9 Pseudo Resolvents.- 1.10 The Dual Semigroup.- 2 Spectral Properties and Regularity.- 2.1 Weak Equals Strong.- 2.2 Spectral Mapping Theorems.- 2.3 Semigroups of Compact Operators.- 2.4 Differentiability.- 2.5 Analytic Semigroups.- 2.6 Fractional Powers of Closed Operators.- 3 Perturbations and Approximations.- 3.1 Perturbations by Bounded Linear Operators.- 3.2 Perturbations of Infinitesimal Generators of Analytic Semigroups.- 3.3 Perturbations of Infinitesimal Generators of Contraction Semigroups.- 3.4 The Trotter Approximation Theorem.- 3.5 A General Representation Theorem.- 3.6 Approximation by Discrete Semigroups.- 4 The Abstract Cauchy Problem.- 4.1 The Homogeneous Initial Value Problem.- 4.2 The Inhomogeneous Initial Value Problem.- 4.3 Regularity of Mild Solutions for Analytic Semigroups.- 4.4 Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions.- 4.5 Invariant and Admissible Subspaces.- 5 Evolution Equations.- 5.1 Evolution Systems.- 5.2 Stable Families of Generators.- 5.3 An Evolution System in the Hyperbolic Case.- 5.4 Regular Solutions in the Hyperbolic Case.- 5.5 The Inhomogeneous Equation in the Hyperbolic Case.- 5.6 An Evolution System for the Parabolic Initial Value Problem.- 5.7 The Inhomogeneous Equation in the Parabolic Case.- 5.8 Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions in the Parabolic Case.- 6 Some Nonlinear Evolution Equations.- 6.1 Lipschitz Perturbations of Linear Evolution Equations.- 6.2 Semilinear Equations with Compact Semigroups.- 6.3 Semilinear Equations with Analytic Semigroups.- 6.4 A Quasilinear Equation of Evolution.- 7 Applications to Partial Differential Equations-Linear Equations.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Parabolic Equations-L2 Theory.- 7.3 Parabolic Equations-Lp Theory.- 7.4 The Wave Equation.- 7.5 A Schrodinger Equation.- 7.6 A Parabolic Evolution Equation.- 8 Applications to Partial Differential Equations-Nonlinear Equations.- 8.1 A Nonlinear Schroinger Equation.- 8.2 A Nonlinear Heat Equation in R1.- 8.3 A Semilinear Evolution Equation in R3.- 8.4 A General Class of Semilinear Initial Value Problems.- 8.5 The Korteweg-de Vries Equation.- Bibliographical Notes and Remarks.

11,637 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented in this article, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments, and a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q 0 and frequency ω 0 of the instability.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments. Examples include patterns in hydrodynamic systems such as thermal convection in pure fluids and binary mixtures, Taylor-Couette flow, parametric-wave instabilities, as well as patterns in solidification fronts, nonlinear optics, oscillatory chemical reactions and excitable biological media. The theoretical starting point is usually a set of deterministic equations of motion, typically in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are sometimes supplemented by stochastic terms representing thermal or instrumental noise, but for macroscopic systems and carefully designed experiments the stochastic forces are often negligible. An aim of theory is to describe solutions of the deterministic equations that are likely to be reached starting from typical initial conditions and to persist at long times. A unified description is developed, based on the linear instabilities of a homogeneous state, which leads naturally to a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q0 and frequency ω0 of the instability. Type Is systems (ω0=0, q0≠0) are stationary in time and periodic in space; type IIIo systems (ω0≠0, q0=0) are periodic in time and uniform in space; and type Io systems (ω0≠0, q0≠0) are periodic in both space and time. Near a continuous (or supercritical) instability, the dynamics may be accurately described via "amplitude equations," whose form is universal for each type of instability. The specifics of each system enter only through the nonuniversal coefficients. Far from the instability threshold a different universal description known as the "phase equation" may be derived, but it is restricted to slow distortions of an ideal pattern. For many systems appropriate starting equations are either not known or too complicated to analyze conveniently. It is thus useful to introduce phenomenological order-parameter models, which lead to the correct amplitude equations near threshold, and which may be solved analytically or numerically in the nonlinear regime away from the instability. The above theoretical methods are useful in analyzing "real pattern effects" such as the influence of external boundaries, or the formation and dynamics of defects in ideal structures. An important element in nonequilibrium systems is the appearance of deterministic chaos. A greal deal is known about systems with a small number of degrees of freedom displaying "temporal chaos," where the structure of the phase space can be analyzed in detail. For spatially extended systems with many degrees of freedom, on the other hand, one is dealing with spatiotemporal chaos and appropriate methods of analysis need to be developed. In addition to the general features of nonequilibrium pattern formation discussed above, detailed reviews of theoretical and experimental work on many specific systems are presented. These include Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid, convection in binary-fluid mixtures, electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals, Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders, parametric surface waves, patterns in certain open flow systems, oscillatory chemical reactions, static and dynamic patterns in biological media, crystallization fronts, and patterns in nonlinear optics. A concluding section summarizes what has and has not been accomplished, and attempts to assess the prospects for the future.

6,145 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce physics-informed neural networks, which are trained to solve supervised learning tasks while respecting any given laws of physics described by general nonlinear partial differential equations.

5,448 citations

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30 Nov 1961

TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose Matrix Methods for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PPDE) and estimate of Acceleration Parameters, and derive the solution of Elliptic Difference Equations.

Abstract: Matrix Properties and Concepts.- Nonnegative Matrices.- Basic Iterative Methods and Comparison Theorems.- Successive Overrelaxation Iterative Methods.- Semi-Iterative Methods.- Derivation and Solution of Elliptic Difference Equations.- Alternating-Direction Implicit Iterative Methods.- Matrix Methods for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations.- Estimation of Acceleration Parameters.

5,317 citations