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Partial melting

About: Partial melting is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8934 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 435919 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new calculation of the crustal composition is based on the proportions of upper crust (UC) to felsic lower crust (FLC) to mafic lower crust (MLC) of about 1:0.6:0.4. These proportions are derived from a 3000 km long refraction seismic profile through western Europe (EGT) comprising 60% old shield and 40% younger fold belt area with about 40 km average Moho depth. A granodioritic bulk composition of the UC in major elements and thirty-two minor and trace elements was calculated from the Canadian Shield data (Shaw et al., 1967, 1976). The computed abundance of thirty-three additional trace elements in the UC is based on the following proportions of major rock units derived from mapping: 14% sedimentary rocks, 25% granites, 20% granodiorites, 5% tonalites, 6% gabbros, and 30% gneisses and mica schists. The composition of FLC and MLC in major and thirty-six minor and trace elements is calculated from data on felsic granulite terrains and mafic xenoliths, respectively, compiled by Rudnick and Presper (1990). More than thirty additional trace element abundances in FLC and MLC were computed or estimated from literature data. The bulk continental crust has a tonalitic and not a dioritic composition with distinctly higher concentrations of incompatible elements including the heat producing isotopes in our calculation. A dioritic bulk crust was suggested by Taylor and McLennan (1985). The amount of tonalite in the crust requires partial melting of mafic rocks with about 100 km thickness (compared with about 7 km in the present MLC) and water supply from dehydrated slabs and mafic intrusions. At the relatively low temperatures of old crustal segments MLC was partly converted into eclogite which could be recycled into the upper mantle under favourable tectonic conditions. The chemical fractionation of UC against FLC + MLC was caused by granitoidal partial melts and by mantle degassing which has controlled weathering and accumulation of volatile compounds close to the Earth's surface. more

4,815 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Marc J. Defant1, Mark S. Drummond2Institutions (2)
01 Oct 1990-Nature
Abstract: MOST volcanic rocks in modern island and continental arcs are probably derived from melting of the mantle wedge, induced by hydrous fluids released during dehydration reactions in the subducted lithosphere1. Arc tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basaltic magmas are produced by partial melting of the mantle, and then evolve by crystal fractionation (with or without assimilation and magma mixing) to more silicic magmas2—basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite suites. Although most arc magmas are generated by these petrogenetic processes, rocks with the geochemical characteristics of melts derived directly from the subducted lithosphere are present in some modern arcs where relatively young and hot lithosphere is being subducted. These andesites, dacites and sodic rhyolites (dacites seem to be the most common products) or their intrusive equivalents (tonalites and trondhjemites) are usually not associated with parental basaltic magmas3. Here we show that the trace-element geochemistry of these magmas (termed 'adakites') is consistent with a derivation by partial melting of the subducted slab, and in particular that subducting lithosphere younger than 25 Myr seems to be required for slab melting to occur. more

3,054 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This geochemical classification of granitic rocks is based upon three INTRODUCTION variables. These are FeO/(FeO + MgO) = Fe-number [or Although granitoids are the most abundant rock types FeO/(FeO + MgO) = Fe∗], the modified alkali–lime index in the continental crust, no single classification scheme (MALI) (Na2O + K2O – CaO) and the aluminum saturation has achieved widespread use. Part of the problem in index (ASI) [Al/(Ca – 1·67P + Na + K)]. The Fe-number granite classification is that the same mineral assemblage, (or Fe∗) distinguishes ferroan granitoids, which manifest strong iron quartz and feldspars with a variety of ferromagnesian enrichment, from magnesian granitoids, which do not. The ferroan minerals, can be achieved by a number of processes. and magnesian granitoids can further be classified into alkalic, Granitoids can form from differentiation of any hyalkali–calcic, calc-alkalic, and calcic on the basis of the MALI persthene-normative melt and from partial melting of and subdivided on the basis of the ASI into peraluminous, metamany rock types. Furthermore, granitic melts may be luminous or peralkaline. Because alkalic rocks are not likely to be derived solely from crustal components, may form from peraluminous and calcic and calc-alkalic rocks are not likely to be evolved mantle-derived melts, or may be a mixture peralkaline, this classification leads to 16 possible groups of granitic of crustal and mantle-derived melts. Because of this rocks. In this classification most Cordilleran granitoids are magnesian complexity, petrologists have relied upon geochemical and calc-alkalic or calcic; both metaluminous and peraluminous classifications to distinguish between various types of types are present. A-type granitoids are ferroan alkali–calcic, although granitoids. Approximately 20 different schemes have evolved over the past 30 years [see Barbarin (1990, 1999) some are ferroan alkalic. Most are metaluminous although some are for a summary thereof]. Most of these schemes are either peraluminous. Caledonian post-orogenic granites are predominantly genetic or tectonic in nature. This paper is an attempt magnesian alkali–calcic. Those with <70 wt % SiO2 are domto present a non-genetic, non-tectonic geochemical clasinantly metaluminous, whereas more silica-rich varieties are comsification scheme that incorporates the best qualities of monly peraluminous. Peraluminous leucogranites may be either the previous schemes, and to explain the petrologic magnesian or ferroan and have a MALI that ranges from calcic to processes that makes this scheme work. alkalic. more

2,616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Julian A. Pearce1, Michael J. Norry2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Data from experimental runs, coexisting phases in ultramafic rocks and phenocryst-matrix pairs in volcanic rocks have been used to compile a table of mineral-liquid distribution coefficients for Ti, Zr, Y, and Nb for basic, intermediate and acid melt compositions. These values have then been used to interpret variations of these elements, first in basalts and second, during fractional crystallization from basic to acid magmas. For basalts, petrogenetic modelling of Zr/Y, Zr/Ti, and Zr/Nb ratios, when used in conjunction with REE, Cr and isotopic variations, suggests that: (1) the increase in Zr/Y ratio from mid-ocean ridge to within plate basalts and the low Zr/Nb ratios of alkalic basalts are due to (fluid controlled) source heterogeneities; (2) the low Zr and Zr/Y ratio of volcanic arc basalts results from high degree of partial melting of a depleted source; and (3) the high Zr and similar Zr/Y ratio of basalts from fast spreading relative to slow spreading ridges results from open-system fractional crystallization. Modelling of fractionation trends in more evolved rocks using Y-Zr, Ti-Zr and Nb-Zr diagrams highlights in particular the change in crystallizing mafic phases from island arcs (clinopyroxene-dominated) to Andean-type arcs (amphibole±biotite-dominated). These methods can be applied to altered lavas of unknown affinities to provide additional information on their genesis and eruptive environment. more

2,477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Henry J. B. Dick1, Thomas Bullen2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The composition of chromian spinel in alpine-type peridotites has a large reciprocal range of Cr and Al, with increasing Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al)) reflecting increasing degrees of partial melting in the mantle. Using spinel compositions, alpine-type peridotites can be divided into three groups. Type I peridotites and associated volcanic rocks contain spinels with Cr# 0.60, and Type II peridotites and volcanics are a transitional group and contain spinels spanning the full range of spinel compositions in Type I and Type II peridotites. Spinels in abyssal peridotites lie entirely within the Type I spinel field, making ophiolites with Type I alpine-type peridotites the most likely candidates for sections of ocean lithosphere formed at a midocean ridge. The only modern analogs for Type III peridotites and associated volcanic rocks are found in arc-related volcanic and intrusive rocks, continental intrusive assemblages, and oceanic plateau basalts. We infer a sub-volcanic arc petrogenesis for most Type III alpine-type peridotites. Type II alpine-type peridotites apparently reflect composite origins, such as the formation of an island-arc on ocean crust, resulting in large variations in the degree and provenance of melting over relatively short distances. The essential difference between Type I and Type III peridotites appears to be the presence or absence of diopside in the residue at the end of melting. more

1,759 citations

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