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Particle horizon

About: Particle horizon is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2096 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 69137 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Alan H. Guth1
Abstract: The standard model of hot big-bang cosmology requires initial conditions which are problematic in two ways: (1) The early universe is assumed to be highly homogeneous, in spite of the fact that separated regions were causally disconnected (horizon problem); and (2) the initial value of the Hubble constant must be fine tuned to extraordinary accuracy to produce a universe as flat (i.e., near critical mass density) as the one we see today (flatness problem). These problems would disappear if, in its early history, the universe supercooled to temperatures 28 or more orders of magnitude below the critical temperature for some phase transition. A huge expansion factor would then result from a period of exponential growth, and the entropy of the universe would be multiplied by a huge factor when the latent heat is released. Such a scenario is completely natural in the context of grand unified models of elementary-particle interactions. In such models, the supercooling is also relevant to the problem of monopole suppression. Unfortunately, the scenario seems to lead to some unacceptable consequences, so modifications must be sought.

8,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Apr 2000-Nature
TL;DR: The first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky are reported, consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.
Abstract: The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole l_(peak) = (197 ± 6), with an amplitude ΔT_(200) = (69 ± 8) µK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

2,399 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The physical interpretation of perturbations of homogeneous, isotropic cosmological models in the early Universe, when the perturbation is larger than the particle horizon, is clarified by defining a complete set of gauge-invariant variables. The linearized perturbation equations written in these variables are simpler than the usual versions, and easily accommodate an arbitrary background equation of state, entropy perturbations, and anisotropic pressure perturbations. Particular attention is paid to how a scalar (density) perturbation might be generated by stress perturbations at very early times, when the non-gauge-invariant perturbation in the density itself is ill-defined. The amplitude of the fractional energy density perturbation at the particle horizon cannot be larger, in order of magnitude, than the maximum ratio of the stress perturbation to the background energy density at any earlier time, unless the perturbation is inherent in the initial singularity.

1,985 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Over a finite time, quantum fluctuations of the curvature disrupt the nonsingular cosmological solution corresponding to a universe with a polarized vacuum. If this solution held as an intermediate stage in the evolution of the universe, then the spectrum of produced fluctuations could have led to the formation of galaxies and galactic clusters.

1,558 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We propose a cosmological scenario in which the hot big bang universe is produced by the collision of a brane in the bulk space with a bounding orbifold plane, beginning from an otherwise cold, vacuous, static universe. The model addresses the cosmological horizon, flatness and monopole problems and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of density perturbations without invoking superluminal expansion (inflation). The scenario relies, instead, on physical phenomena that arise naturally in theories based on extra dimensions and branes. As an example, we present our scenario predominantly within the context of heterotic M theory. A prediction that distinguishes this scenario from standard inflationary cosmology is a strongly blue gravitational wave spectrum, which has consequences for microwave background polarization experiments and gravitational wave detectors.

1,521 citations

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