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Topic

Particle

About: Particle is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 96582 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1954327 citation(s).


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Book
01 Jan 1983
Abstract: BASIC THEORY. Electromagnetic Theory. Absorption and Scattering by an Arbitrary Particle. Absorption and Scattering by a Sphere. Particles Small Compared with the Wavelength. Rayleigh--Gans Theory. Geometrical Optics. A Potpourri of Particles. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BULK MATTER. Classical Theories of Optical Constants. Measured Optical Properties. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLES. Extinction. Surface Modes in Small Particles. Angular Dependence of Scattering. A Miscellany of Applications. Appendices. References. Index.

16,572 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A system of chemical reactions has been developed which permits the controlled growth of spherical silica particles of uniform size by means of hydrolysis of alkyl silicates and subsequent condensation of silicic acid in alcoholic solutions. Ammonia is used as a morphological catalyst. Particle sizes obtained in suspension range from less than 0.05 μ to 2 μ in diameter.

11,882 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
G. Frens1
01 Jan 1973-Nature
Abstract: MANY properties of colloids and suspensions depend on the particle size. Series of monodisperse suspensions of the same chemical composition but of rather different particle sizes may be used to study particle size dependent phenomena, such as Brownian motion, light scattering, sedimentation and electrophoresis of small particles. We have used such series to demonstrate the increased tendency of metal suspensions to coagulate in the presence of electrolytes as the radius of the particles increases1.

7,162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Optical trapping of dielectric particles by a single-beam gradient force trap was demonstrated for the first reported time, confirming the concept of negative light pressure due to the gradient force.
Abstract: Optical trapping of dielectric particles by a single-beam gradient force trap was demonstrated for the first reported time. This confirms the concept of negative light pressure due to the gradient force. Trapping was observed over the entire range of particle size from 10 μm to ~25 nm in water. Use of the new trap extends the size range of macroscopic particles accessible to optical trapping and manipulation well into the Rayleigh size regime. Application of this trapping principle to atom trapping is considered.

5,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.

5,812 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022197
20213,400
20203,659
20193,619
20183,656
20173,842