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Particulates

About: Particulates is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15137 publications have been published within this topic receiving 350400 citations. The topic is also known as: atmospheric particulate matter & APM.


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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Oct 2014-Nature
TL;DR: The results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China’s PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.
Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.

3,372 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic evidence on the health effects of particulate matter is summarized and an in-depth analysis is provided to address the implications for policy-makers so that more stringent strategies can be implemented to reduce air pollution and its health effects.

1,920 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a thermal-optical technique for analysis of the carbonaceous fraction of particulate diesel exhaust is reported, and the speciation of organic and elemental carbon is accomplished through temperature and atmosphere control, and by an optical feature that corrects for pyrolytically generated carbon.
Abstract: Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that employers reduce workers' exposures. Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity for low-level determination of particulate diesel exhaust; a new analytical approach was therefore needed. In this paper, results of investigation of a thermal-optical technique for analysis of the carbonaceous fraction of particulate diesel exhaust are reported. With this technique, speciation of organic and elemental carbon is accomplished through temperature and atmosphere control, and by an optical feature that corrects for pyrolytically generated carbon, or “char,” which is formed during the analysis of some materials. The therma...

1,749 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that climate change alone will increase summertime surface ozone in polluted regions by 1-10 ppb over the coming decades, with the largest effects in urban areas and during pollution episodes.

1,470 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20232,128
20224,451
2021663
2020775
2019748
2018676