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Peak demand

About: Peak demand is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4169 publications have been published within this topic receiving 79401 citations. The topic is also known as: electricity rush hour & peak load.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a survey of demand response potentials and benefits in smart grids is presented, with reference to real industrial case studies and research projects, such as smart meters, energy controllers, communication systems, etc.
Abstract: The smart grid is conceived of as an electric grid that can deliver electricity in a controlled, smart way from points of generation to active consumers. Demand response (DR), by promoting the interaction and responsiveness of the customers, may offer a broad range of potential benefits on system operation and expansion and on market efficiency. Moreover, by improving the reliability of the power system and, in the long term, lowering peak demand, DR reduces overall plant and capital cost investments and postpones the need for network upgrades. In this paper a survey of DR potentials and benefits in smart grids is presented. Innovative enabling technologies and systems, such as smart meters, energy controllers, communication systems, decisive to facilitate the coordination of efficiency and DR in a smart grid, are described and discussed with reference to real industrial case studies and research projects.

1,901 citations

Book
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that minimum parking requirements can increase development costs by more than 10 times the impact fees for all other public purposes combined, without considering either the price motorists pay for parking or the cost of providing the required parking spaces.
Abstract: Urban planners typically set minimum parking requirements to meet the peak demand for parking at each land use, without considering either the price motorists pay for parking or the cost of providing the required parking spaces. By reducing the market price of parking, minimum parking requirements provide subsidies that inflate parking demand, and this inflated demand is then used to set minimum parking requirements. When considered as an impact fee, minimum parking requirements can increase development costs by more than 10 times the impact fees for all other public purposes combined. Eliminating minimum parking requirements would reduce the cost of urban development, improve urban design, reduce automobile dependency, and restrain urban sprawl.

1,215 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors survey the evidence from the 15 most recent pilots, experiments and full-scale implementations of dynamic pricing of electricity and find conclusive evidence that households respond to higher prices by lowering usage.
Abstract: Since the energy crisis of 2000–2001 in the western United States, much attention has been given to boosting demand response in electricity markets. One of the best ways to let that happen is to pass through wholesale energy costs to retail customers. This can be accomplished by letting retail prices vary dynamically, either entirely or partly. For the overwhelming majority of customers, that requires a change out of the metering infrastructure, which may cost as much as $40 billion for the US as a whole. While a good portion of this investment can be covered by savings in distribution system costs, about 40% may remain uncovered. This investment gap could be covered by reductions in power generation costs that could be brought about through demand response. Thus, state regulators in many states are investigating whether customers will respond to the higher prices by lowering demand and if so, by how much. To help inform this assessment, this paper surveys the evidence from the 15 most recent pilots, experiments and full-scale implementations of dynamic pricing of electricity. It finds conclusive evidence that households respond to higher prices by lowering usage. The magnitude of price response depends on several factors, such as the magnitude of the price increase, the presence of central air conditioning and the availability of enabling technologies such as two-way programmable communicating thermostats and always-on gateway systems that allow multiple end-uses to be controlled remotely. In addition, the design of the studies, the tools used to analyze the data and the geography of the assessment influence demand response. Across the range of experiments studied, time-of-use rates induce a drop in peak demand that ranges between 3 and 6% and critical-peak pricing (CPP) tariffs induce a drop in peak demand that ranges between 13 and 20%. When accompanied with enabling technologies, the latter set of tariffs lead to a reduction in peak demand in the 27–44% range.

647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: California has significantly reduced building energy demand through a series of progressive appliance and building standards that promote energy efficiency, which mean that California has among the lowest per capita electricity consumption rates in the nation.
Abstract: Goals Reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. All new residential buildings meet zero-­‐net-­‐energy (ZNE) goals by 2020, all new commercial buildings by 2030. Why it is Important Combustion of fossil fuels to power vehicles and buildings is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the state. Energy use in residential and commercial buildings and the industrial sector is the second largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in California. California has significantly reduced building energy demand through a series of progressive appliance and building standards that promote energy efficiency. These standards, combined with the state's mild climate, mean that California has among the lowest per capita electricity consumption rates of any state in the nation. In 2011, California had the fifth lowest per capita energy demand of any state. 1 Recent Trends Energy consumption occurs in all sectors of state's economy. In California, the transportation sector accounts for the highest share of the state's energy consumption. This demand is met, primarily, through the combustion of fossil fuels to power passenger cars and trucks. Consumption in the industrial, commercial, and industrial sectors is primarily accounted for by electricity and natural gas consumption. 1 Electricity use per capita in California is well below the national average 2 , owing to the state's appliance and building energy efficiency standards and mild climate. Even as the state's population has continued to grow, per capita electricity use has remained steady, while the national average has increased slightly. When comparing per capita energy consumption by sector, it is clear that California's energy efficiency efforts have been most successful in the building sector.

524 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper mainly focuses on demand side management and demand response, including drivers and benefits, shiftable load scheduling methods and peak shaving techniques, and a novel electricity demand control technique using real-time pricing is proposed.

506 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202362
2022136
2021213
2020258
2019302
2018245