About: Pectinase is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4621 publications have been published within this topic receiving 93838 citations. The topic is also known as: pectin hydrolase & Pectinase.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Transgenic experiments show that ripening-related expansin protein abundance is directly correlated with fruit softening and has additional indirect effects on pectin depolymerization, showing that this protein is intimately involved in the softening process.
Abstract: Excessive softening is the main factor limiting fruit shelf life and storage. Transgenic plants modified in the expression of cell wall modifying proteins have been used to investigate the role of particular activities in fruit softening during ripening, and in the manufacture of processed fruit products. Transgenic experiments show that polygalacturonase (PG) activity is largely responsible for pectin depolymerization and solubilization, but that PG-mediated pectin depolymerization requires pectin to be de-methyl-esterified by pectin methylesterase (PME), and that the PG β-subunit protein plays a role in limiting pectin solubilization. Suppression of PG activity only slightly reduces fruit softening (but extends fruit shelf life), suppression of PME activity does not affect firmness during normal ripening, and suppression of β-subunit protein accumulation increases softening. All these pectin-modifying proteins affect the integrity of the middle lamella, which controls cell-to-cell adhesion and thus influences fruit texture. Diminished accumulation of either PG or PME activity considerably increases the viscosity of tomato juice or paste, which is correlated with reduced polyuronide depolymerization during processing. In contrast, suppression of β-galactosidase activity early in ripening significantly reduces fruit softening, suggesting that the removal of pectic galactan side-chains is an important factor in the cell wall changes leading to ripening-related firmness loss. Suppression or overexpression of endo-(1\to4)β-d-glucanase activity has no detectable effect on fruit softening or the depolymerization of matrix glycans, and neither the substrate nor the function for this enzyme has been determined. The role of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity in softening is also obscure, and the activity responsible for xyloglucan depolymerization during ripening, a major contributor to softening, has not yet been identified. However, ripening-related expansin protein abundance is directly correlated with fruit softening and has additional indirect effects on pectin depolymerization, showing that this protein is intimately involved in the softening process. Transgenic work has shown that the cell wall changes leading to fruit softening and textural changes are complex, and involve the coordinated and interdependent activities of a range of cell wall-modifying proteins. It is suggested that the cell wall changes caused early in ripening by the activities of some enzymes, notably β-galactosidase and ripening-related expansin, may restrict or control the activities of other ripening-related enzymes necessary for the fruit softening process.
TL;DR: This review discusses various types of pectinases and their applications in the commercial sector.
TL;DR: Solid media are described on which the production of the extracellular enzymes amylase, lipase, DNA- and RNAase, pectinase, protease, urease, and chitinase were detected.
Abstract: Solid media are described on which the production of the extracellular enzymes amylase, lipase, DNA- and RNAase, pectinase, protease, urease, and chitinase were detected. The media were tested with...
TL;DR: A study of the diversity of endophytic bacteria present in seeds of a deepwater rice variety revealed the presence of seven types of BOX-PCR fingerprints and one strain was identified as Pantoea agglomerans, genetically tagged with the reporter gene, gusA, which colonized the root surface, root hairs, root cap, points of lateral root emergence, root cortex and the stelar region.
TL;DR: It is suggested that this degradation of cell wall polyuronide degradation is not sufficient for the induction of softening, elevated rates of ethylene biosynthesis, or lycopene accumulation in rin fruit.
Abstract: Tomato fruit ripening is accompanied by extensive degradation of pectic cell wall components. This is thought to be due to the action of a single enzyme, polygalacturonase, whose activity is controlled, at least in part, at the level of gene expression. At the onset of tomato fruit ripening, polygalacturonase enzyme activity, mRNA levels, and relative rate of gene transcription all increase dramatically. To elucidate the role of polygalacturonase during tomato fruit ripening, we utilized a pleiotropic genetic mutation, rin, that blocks many aspects of ripening, including the activation of polygalacturonase gene transcription. The polygalacturonase structural gene was ligated to a promoter that is inducible in mature rin fruit and inserted into the fruit genome, and plants were regenerated. This allowed expression of the polygalacturonase gene in transgenic rin fruit at a time corresponding to ripening in wild-type fruit. Expression of this gene resulted in the accumulation of active polygalacturonase enzyme and the degradation of cell wall polyuronides in transgenic rin fruit. However, no significant effect on fruit softening, ethylene evolution, or color development was detected. These results indicate that polygalacturonase is the primary determinant of cell wall polyuronide degradation, but suggest that this degradation is not sufficient for the induction of softening, elevated rates of ethylene biosynthesis, or lycopene accumulation in rin fruit.
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