About: Peer group is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11192 publications have been published within this topic receiving 569983 citations. The topic is also known as: peer groups.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a study of how students change and develop in college and how colleges can enhance that development based on more than 20,000 students, 25,000 faculty members, and 200 institutions.
Abstract: From the author of Four Critical Years--a book the Journal of Higher Education called the most cited work in higher education literature--What Matters in College? presents the definitive study of how students change and develop in college and how colleges can enhance that development. Based on a study of more than 20,000 students, 25,000 faculty members, and 200 institutions, the book shows how academic programs, faculty, student peer groups, and other variables affect students' college experiences.
TL;DR: In the present study, a form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of third-through sixth-grade children and indicated that girls were significantly more relationally aggressive than were boys.
Abstract: Prior studies of childhood aggression have demonstrated that, as a group, boys are more aggressive than girls. We hypothesized that this finding reflects a lack of research on forms of aggression that are relevant to young females rather than an actual gender difference in levels of overall aggressiveness. In the present study, a form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 491 third-through sixth-grade children. Overt aggression (i.e., physical and verbal aggression as assessed in past research) and social-psychological adjustment were also assessed. Results provide evidence for the validity and distinctiveness of relational aggression. Further, they indicated that, as predicted, girls were significantly more relationally aggressive than were boys. Results also indicated that relationally aggressive children may be at risk for serious adjustment difficulties (e.g., they were significantly more rejected and reported significantly higher levels of loneliness, depression, and isolation relative to their nonrelationally aggressive peers).
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: The second phase of a long-term program of research on problem behavior as mentioned in this paper is the 2nd phase of the longitudinal study of problem behavior in adolescents and youths in American society in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which represents a logical continuation of long term interest in problem behavior and recognition that what was going on among youth and in the student movement can be viewed from a problem-behavior perspective.
Abstract: This study is the 2nd phase of a long-term program of research on problem behavior. The approach to theory testing involves a longitudinal design. The study plots trajectories of change over time in personality social environment and behavior and uses the theory to forecast important transitions--beginning to drink starting to use marijuana and becoming a nonvirgin. The book has 4 main sections: 1) an introductory chapter and a chapter describing problem-behavior theory and research design and method 2) the cross-sectional findings and their bearing on the theory 3) the longitudinal findings and 4) studies of socialization and conclusions. Using adolescents and youths in American society in the late 1960s and early 1970s this research represents a logical continuation of a long term interest in problem behavior and a recognition that what was going on among youth and in the student movement can be viewed from a problem-behavior perspective. This high school study began in the spring of 1969 with grades 7 8 and 9; by the end of the study in 1972 these participants had all made the transition from junior to senior high school of grades 10 11 and 12. Each year each participant completed a 50 page questionnaire inquiring about their drug use sexual behavior alcohol drinking and the problem behavior associated with excessive use of alcohol. Some of the major findings suggest that: 1) the prevalence of problem behaviors is substantial at the college level and while much lower sizable at the high school level; 2) personal controls appear to be most influential in relation to the set of problem behaviors motivational-instigations are next and personal beliefs are least; 3) the adolescent who is less likely to engage in problem behavior is one who values academic achievement and expects to do well academically; 4) within the distal structure the variables that indicate whether a youth is parent-oriented or peer-oriented are the most significant; and 5) the developmental changes most often measured in connection with growth trends are growth of independence decline in traditional ideology related to achievement value and society as a whole assumption of a more relativistic and tolerant morality attenuation of conventional norms and religious beliefs increase in peer influence and increase in problem behavior itself. Overall it would be an important step forward for prevention and control if problem behavior in youth came to be seen as part of the dialectic of growth.
TL;DR: There is general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties, and support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality.
Abstract: In this review, we examine the oft-made claim that peer-relationship difficulties in childhood predict serious adjustment problems in later life. The article begins with a framework for conceptualizing and assessing children's peer difficulties and with a discussion of conceptual and methodological issues in longitudinal risk research. Following this, three indexes of problematic peer relationships (acceptance, aggressiveness, and shyness/withdrawal) are evaluated as predictors of three later outcomes (dropping out of school, criminality, and psychcpathology). The relation between peer difficulties and later maladjustment is examined in terms of both the consistency and strength of prediction. A review and analysis of the literature indicates general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties. Support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality. It is also clearest for low acceptance and aggressiveness as predictors, whereas a link between shyness/withdrawal and later maladjustment has not yet been adequately tested. The article concludes with a critical discussion of the implicit models that have guided past research in this area and a set of recommendations for the next generation of research on the risk
TL;DR: Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that the route to chronic delinquency is marked by a reliable developmental sequence of experiences, which assumes that children following this developmental sequence are at high risk for engaging in chronic delinquent behavior.
Abstract: A developmental model of antisocial behavior is outlined. Recent findings are reviewed that concern the etiology and course of antisocial behavior from early childhood through adolescence. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that the route to chronic delinquency is marked by a reliable developmental sequence of experiences. As a first step, ineffective parenting practices are viewed as determinants for childhood conduct disorders. The general model also takes into account the contextual variables that influence the family interaction process. As a second step, the conduct-disordered behaviors lead to academic failure and peer rejection. These dual failures lead, in turn, to increased risk for depressed mood and involvement in a deviant peer group. This third step usually occurs during later childhood and early adolescence. It is assumed that children following this developmental sequence are at high risk for engaging in chronic delinquent behavior. Finally, implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.