About: Penicillin is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17916 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 368480 citation(s). The topic is also known as: penicillin antibiotic & PCN.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Enterococci are important human pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including resistance to cephalosporins, clindamycin, tetracycline, and penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as oxacillin, among others.
Abstract: Enterococci are important human pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. These organisms were previously considered part of the genus Streptococcus but have recently been reclassified into their own genus, called Enterococcus. To date, 12 species pathogenic for humans have been described, including the most common human isolates, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Enterococci cause between 5 and 15% of cases of endocarditis, which is best treated by the combination of a cell wall-active agent (such as penicillin or vancomycin, neither of which alone is usually bactericidal) and an aminoglycoside to which the organism is not highly resistant; this characteristically results in a synergistic bactericidal effect. High-level resistance (MIC, greater than or equal to 2,000 micrograms/ml) to the aminoglycoside eliminates the expected bactericidal effect, and such resistance has now been described for all aminoglycosides. Enterococci can also cause urinary tract infections; intraabdominal, pelvic, and wound infections; superinfections (particularly in patients receiving expanded-spectrum cephalosporins); and bacteremias (often together with other organisms). They are now the third most common organism seen in nosocomial infections. For most of these infections, single-drug therapy, most often with penicillin, ampicillin, or vancomycin, is adequate. Enterococci have a large number of both inherent and acquired resistance traits, including resistance to cephalosporins, clindamycin, tetracycline, and penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as oxacillin, among others. The most recent resistance traits reported are penicillinase resistance (apparently acquired from staphylococci) and vancomycin resistance, both of which can be transferred to other enterococci. It appears likely that we will soon be faced with increasing numbers of enterococci for which there is no adequate therapy.
TL;DR: A strain of staphylococci in becoming resistant to penicillin did not show an increase in its resistance to sulfactin and the increase in resistance developed by a strain of E. coli to streptomycin was intermediate.
Abstract: SummaryA strain of staphylococci in becoming resistant to penicillin did not show an increase in its resistance to sulfactin. A similar strain of staphylococci in becoming resistant to sulfactin di...
TL;DR: It is suggested that it may be an efficient antiseptic for application to, or injection into, areas infected with penicillin-sensitive microbes, and its value as an aid to the isolation of B. influenzae has been demonstrated.
Abstract: 1. A certain type of penicillium produces in culture a powerful antibacterial substance. The antibacterial power of the culture reaches its maximum in about 7 days at 20o C. and after 10 days diminishes until it has almost disappeared in 4 weeks. 2. The best medium found for the production of the antibacterial substance has been ordinary nutrient broth. 3. The active agent is readily filterable and the name "penicillin" has been given to filtrates of broth cultures of the mould. 4. Penicillin loses most of its power after 10 to 14 days at room temperature but can be preserved longer by neutralization. 5. The active agent is not destroyed by boiling for a few minutes but in alkaline solution boiling for 1 hour markedly reduces the power. Autoclaving for 20 minutes at 115o C. practically destroys it. It is soluble in alcohol but insoluble in ether or chloroform. 6. The action is very marked on the pyogenic cocci and the diphtheria group of bacilli. Many bacteria are quite insensitive, e.g. the coli-typhoid group, the influenza-bacillus group, and the enterococcus. 7. Penicillin is non-toxic to animals in enormous doses and is non-irritant. It doses not interfere with leucocytic function to a greater degree than does ordinary broth. 8. It is suggested that it may be an efficient antiseptic for application to, or injection into, areas infected with penicillin-sensitive microbes. 9. The use of penicillin on culture plates renders obvious many bacterial inhibitions which are not very evident in ordinary cultures. 10. Its value as an aid to the isolation of B. influenzae has been demonstrated.
TL;DR: It is confirmed that the growth of B. coli and a number of other bacteria belonging to the colityphoid group was not inhibited by penicillin, and the cause of the resistance of these organisms to the action of Penicillin is found.
Abstract: FLEMING1 noted that the growth of B. coli and a number of other bacteria belonging to the colityphoid group was not inhibited by penicillin. This observation has been confirmed. Further work has been done to find the cause of the resistance of these organisms to the action of penicillin.
TL;DR: The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles of silver using a reduction of aqueous Ag(+) ion with the culture supernatants of Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported on and their part in increasing the antimicrobial activities of various antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is evaluated.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in recent years and is a major health problem. The combination effects of Ag-NPs with the antibacterial activity of antibiotics have not been studied. Here, we report on the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles of silver using a reduction of aqueous Ag + ion with the culture supernatants of Klebsiella pneumoniae . Also in this article these nanoparticles are evaluated for their part in increasing the antimicrobial activities of various antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli . The antibacterial activities of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin were increased in the presence of Ag-NPs against both test strains. The highest enhancing effects were observed for vancomycin, amoxicillin, and penicillin G against S. aureus.
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