Pentose phosphate pathway
About: Pentose phosphate pathway is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4481 publications have been published within this topic receiving 174040 citations. The topic is also known as: Pentose phosphate pathway: PPP & GO:0006098.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Observations suggest Nrf2 directs metabolic reprogramming during stress, which would enable the factor to orchestrate adaptive responses to diverse forms of stress.
Abstract: Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2, also called Nfe2l2) is a transcription factor that regulates the cellular redox status Nrf2 is controlled through a complex transcriptional/epigenetic and post-translational network that ensures its activity increases during redox perturbation, inflammation, growth factor stimulation and nutrient/energy fluxes, thereby enabling the factor to orchestrate adaptive responses to diverse forms of stress Besides mediating stress-stimulated induction of antioxidant and detoxification genes, Nrf2 contributes to adaptation by upregulating the repair and degradation of damaged macromolecules, and by modulating intermediary metabolism In the latter case, Nrf2 inhibits lipogenesis, supports β-oxidation of fatty acids, facilitates flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, and increases NADPH regeneration and purine biosynthesis; these observations suggest Nrf2 directs metabolic reprogramming during stress
TL;DR: A mechanism is proposed whereby the interconversions of proline and P5C in different cell types and the associated transfer of redox potential between tissues may constitute a form of metabolic signalling within higher plants.
Abstract: In many plants, free proline accumulates in response to the imposition of a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the extent to which this shift in nitrogen metabolism benefits plants under adverse environmental conditions. Most attempts to account for the phenomenon have focused on the ability of proline to mediate osmotic adjustment, stabilise subcellular structures and scavenge free radicals. However, often the cytoplasmic pool of free proline even after the imposition of stress is insufficient size to account for pronounced biophysical effects. Alternatively, selective preservation of this stress-induced response may relate to endpoints other than simply augmenting the cellular pool of free proline. Proline accumulation may reduce stress-induced cellular acidification or prime oxidative respiration to provide energy needed for recovery. High levels of proline synthesis during stress may maintain NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H ratios at values compatible with metabolism under normal conditions. Consideration of the cofactor preference of plant Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase as well as the in vivo concentrations of the two pyridine nucleotide cofactors and their respective redox ratios suggests that even a small increase in proline biosynthesis might have a large impact on the level of reduction of the cellular NADP pool. The increased NADP+/NADPH ratio mediated by proline biosynthesis is likely to enhance activity of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This would provide precursors to support the demand for increased secondary metabolite production during stress as well as nucleotide synthesis accompanying the accelerated rate of cell division upon relief from stress, when oxidation of proline is likely to provide an important energy source for ADP phosphorylation. Thus, the extreme sensitivity of the metabolic processes of proline synthesis and degradation themselves may be of benefit by regulating metabolic processes adversely affected by stress. This viewpoint is supported by consideration of other physiological phenomena not directly related to stress responses, but in which proline metabolism may also play a regulatory role. A mechanism is proposed whereby the interconversions of proline and P5C in different cell types and the associated transfer of redox potential between tissues may constitute a form of metabolic signalling within higher plants. Stress-related alterations in proline metabolism may impinge on systems of redox control of plant gene expression.
TL;DR: The PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival is summarized.
Abstract: The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which branches from glycolysis at the first committed step of glucose metabolism, is required for the synthesis of ribonucleotides and is a major source of NADPH NADPH is required for and consumed during fatty acid synthesis and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) Therefore, the PPP plays a pivotal role in helping glycolytic cancer cells to meet their anabolic demands and combat oxidative stress Recently, several neoplastic lesions were shown to have evolved to facilitate the flux of glucose into the PPP This review summarizes the fundamental functions of the PPP, its regulation in cancer cells, and its importance in cancer cell metabolism and survival
TL;DR: It is shown that AMPK activation, during energy stress, prolongs cell survival by redox regulation and has a key function in NADPH maintenance, which is critical for cancer cell survival under energy stress conditions, such as glucose limitations, anchorage-independent growth and solid tumour formation in vivo.
Abstract: Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step for solid tumour growth. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell death and survival under metabolic stress are not well understood. A key signalling pathway involved in metabolic adaptation is the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Energy stress conditions that decrease intracellular ATP levels below a certain level promote AMPK activation by LKB1. Previous studies showed that LKB1-deficient or AMPK-deficient cells are resistant to oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis, possibly because of the function of AMPK in metabolic adaptation. However, the mechanisms by which AMPK promotes metabolic adaptation in tumour cells are not fully understood. Here we show that AMPK activation, during energy stress, prolongs cell survival by redox regulation. Under these conditions, NADPH generation by the pentose phosphate pathway is impaired, but AMPK induces alternative routes to maintain NADPH and inhibit cell death. The inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 by AMPK maintains NADPH levels by decreasing NADPH consumption in fatty-acid synthesis and increasing NADPH generation by means of fatty-acid oxidation. Knockdown of either ACC1 or ACC2 compensates for AMPK activation and facilitates anchorage-independent growth and solid tumour formation in vivo, whereas the activation of ACC1 or ACC2 attenuates these processes. Thus AMPK, in addition to its function in ATP homeostasis, has a key function in NADPH maintenance, which is critical for cancer cell survival under energy stress conditions, such as glucose limitations, anchorage-independent growth and solid tumour formation in vivo.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors showed that acute increases in intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) through oxidation of Cys358.
Abstract: Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival. We show that, in human lung cancer cells, acute increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) through oxidation of Cys358. This inhibition of PKM2 is required to divert glucose flux into the pentose phosphate pathway and thereby generate sufficient reducing potential for detoxification of ROS. Lung cancer cells in which endogenous PKM2 was replaced with the Cys358 to Ser358 oxidation-resistant mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and impaired tumor formation in a xenograft model. Besides promoting metabolic changes required for proliferation, the regulatory properties of PKM2 may confer an additional advantage to cancer cells by allowing them to withstand oxidative stress.
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