Topic

# Perceptron

About: Perceptron is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10650 publications have been published within this topic receiving 258789 citations.

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01 Jul 1992TL;DR: A training algorithm that maximizes the margin between the training patterns and the decision boundary is presented, applicable to a wide variety of the classification functions, including Perceptrons, polynomials, and Radial Basis Functions.

Abstract: A training algorithm that maximizes the margin between the training patterns and the decision boundary is presented. The technique is applicable to a wide variety of the classification functions, including Perceptrons, polynomials, and Radial Basis Functions. The effective number of parameters is adjusted automatically to match the complexity of the problem. The solution is expressed as a linear combination of supporting patterns. These are the subset of training patterns that are closest to the decision boundary. Bounds on the generalization performance based on the leave-one-out method and the VC-dimension are given. Experimental results on optical character recognition problems demonstrate the good generalization obtained when compared with other learning algorithms.

11,211 citations

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TL;DR: This article will be concerned primarily with the second and third questions, which are still subject to a vast amount of speculation, and where the few relevant facts currently supplied by neurophysiology have not yet been integrated into an acceptable theory.

Abstract: The first of these questions is in the province of sensory physiology, and is the only one for which appreciable understanding has been achieved. This article will be concerned primarily with the second and third questions, which are still subject to a vast amount of speculation, and where the few relevant facts currently supplied by neurophysiology have not yet been integrated into an acceptable theory. With regard to the second question, two alternative positions have been maintained. The first suggests that storage of sensory information is in the form of coded representations or images, with some sort of one-to-one mapping between the sensory stimulus

8,434 citations

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01 Jan 1984

TL;DR: The purpose and nature of Biological Memory, as well as some of the aspects of Memory Aspects, are explained.

Abstract: 1. Various Aspects of Memory.- 1.1 On the Purpose and Nature of Biological Memory.- 1.1.1 Some Fundamental Concepts.- 1.1.2 The Classical Laws of Association.- 1.1.3 On Different Levels of Modelling.- 1.2 Questions Concerning the Fundamental Mechanisms of Memory.- 1.2.1 Where Do the Signals Relating to Memory Act Upon?.- 1.2.2 What Kind of Encoding is Used for Neural Signals?.- 1.2.3 What are the Variable Memory Elements?.- 1.2.4 How are Neural Signals Addressed in Memory?.- 1.3 Elementary Operations Implemented by Associative Memory.- 1.3.1 Associative Recall.- 1.3.2 Production of Sequences from the Associative Memory.- 1.3.3 On the Meaning of Background and Context.- 1.4 More Abstract Aspects of Memory.- 1.4.1 The Problem of Infinite-State Memory.- 1.4.2 Invariant Representations.- 1.4.3 Symbolic Representations.- 1.4.4 Virtual Images.- 1.4.5 The Logic of Stored Knowledge.- 2. Pattern Mathematics.- 2.1 Mathematical Notations and Methods.- 2.1.1 Vector Space Concepts.- 2.1.2 Matrix Notations.- 2.1.3 Further Properties of Matrices.- 2.1.4 Matrix Equations.- 2.1.5 Projection Operators.- 2.1.6 On Matrix Differential Calculus.- 2.2 Distance Measures for Patterns.- 2.2.1 Measures of Similarity and Distance in Vector Spaces.- 2.2.2 Measures of Similarity and Distance Between Symbol Strings.- 2.2.3 More Accurate Distance Measures for Text.- 3. Classical Learning Systems.- 3.1 The Adaptive Linear Element (Adaline).- 3.1.1 Description of Adaptation by the Stochastic Approximation.- 3.2 The Perceptron.- 3.3 The Learning Matrix.- 3.4 Physical Realization of Adaptive Weights.- 3.4.1 Perceptron and Adaline.- 3.4.2 Classical Conditioning.- 3.4.3 Conjunction Learning Switches.- 3.4.4 Digital Representation of Adaptive Circuits.- 3.4.5 Biological Components.- 4. A New Approach to Adaptive Filters.- 4.1 Survey of Some Necessary Functions.- 4.2 On the "Transfer Function" of the Neuron.- 4.3 Models for Basic Adaptive Units.- 4.3.1 On the Linearization of the Basic Unit.- 4.3.2 Various Cases of Adaptation Laws.- 4.3.3 Two Limit Theorems.- 4.3.4 The Novelty Detector.- 4.4 Adaptive Feedback Networks.- 4.4.1 The Autocorrelation Matrix Memory.- 4.4.2 The Novelty Filter.- 5. Self-Organizing Feature Maps.- 5.1 On the Feature Maps of the Brain.- 5.2 Formation of Localized Responses by Lateral Feedback.- 5.3 Computational Simplification of the Process.- 5.3.1 Definition of the Topology-Preserving Mapping.- 5.3.2 A Simple Two-Dimensional Self-Organizing System.- 5.4 Demonstrations of Simple Topology-Preserving Mappings.- 5.4.1 Images of Various Distributions of Input Vectors.- 5.4.2 "The Magic TV".- 5.4.3 Mapping by a Feeler Mechanism.- 5.5 Tonotopic Map.- 5.6 Formation of Hierarchical Representations.- 5.6.1 Taxonomy Example.- 5.6.2 Phoneme Map.- 5.7 Mathematical Treatment of Self-Organization.- 5.7.1 Ordering of Weights.- 5.7.2 Convergence Phase.- 5.8 Automatic Selection of Feature Dimensions.- 6. Optimal Associative Mappings.- 6.1 Transfer Function of an Associative Network.- 6.2 Autoassociative Recall as an Orthogonal Projection.- 6.2.1 Orthogonal Projections.- 6.2.2 Error-Correcting Properties of Projections.- 6.3 The Novelty Filter.- 6.3.1 Two Examples of Novelty Filter.- 6.3.2 Novelty Filter as an Autoassociative Memory.- 6.4 Autoassociative Encoding.- 6.4.1 An Example of Autoassociative Encoding.- 6.5 Optimal Associative Mappings.- 6.5.1 The Optimal Linear Associative Mapping.- 6.5.2 Optimal Nonlinear Associative Mappings.- 6.6 Relationship Between Associative Mapping, Linear Regression, and Linear Estimation.- 6.6.1 Relationship of the Associative Mapping to Linear Regression.- 6.6.2 Relationship of the Regression Solution to the Linear Estimator.- 6.7 Recursive Computation of the Optimal Associative Mapping.- 6.7.1 Linear Corrective Algorithms.- 6.7.2 Best Exact Solution (Gradient Projection).- 6.7.3 Best Approximate Solution (Regression).- 6.7.4 Recursive Solution in the General Case.- 6.8 Special Cases.- 6.8.1 The Correlation Matrix Memory.- 6.8.2 Relationship Between Conditional Averages and Optimal Estimator.- 7. Pattern Recognition.- 7.1 Discriminant Functions.- 7.2 Statistical Formulation of Pattern Classification.- 7.3 Comparison Methods.- 7.4 The Subspace Methods of Classification.- 7.4.1 The Basic Subspace Method.- 7.4.2 The Learning Subspace Method (LSM).- 7.5 Learning Vector Quantization.- 7.6 Feature Extraction.- 7.7 Clustering.- 7.7.1 Simple Clustering (Optimization Approach).- 7.7.2 Hierarchical Clustering (Taxonomy Approach).- 7.8 Structural Pattern Recognition Methods.- 8. More About Biological Memory.- 8.1 Physiological Foundations of Memory.- 8.1.1 On the Mechanisms of Memory in Biological Systems.- 8.1.2 Structural Features of Some Neural Networks.- 8.1.3 Functional Features of Neurons.- 8.1.4 Modelling of the Synaptic Plasticity.- 8.1.5 Can the Memory Capacity Ensue from Synaptic Changes?.- 8.2 The Unified Cortical Memory Model.- 8.2.1 The Laminar Network Organization.- 8.2.2 On the Roles of Interneurons.- 8.2.3 Representation of Knowledge Over Memory Fields.- 8.2.4 Self-Controlled Operation of Memory.- 8.3 Collateral Reading.- 8.3.1 Physiological Results Relevant to Modelling.- 8.3.2 Related Modelling.- 9. Notes on Neural Computing.- 9.1 First Theoretical Views of Neural Networks.- 9.2 Motives for the Neural Computing Research.- 9.3 What Could the Purpose of the Neural Networks be?.- 9.4 Definitions of Artificial "Neural Computing" and General Notes on Neural Modelling.- 9.5 Are the Biological Neural Functions Localized or Distributed?.- 9.6 Is Nonlinearity Essential to Neural Computing?.- 9.7 Characteristic Differences Between Neural and Digital Computers.- 9.7.1 The Degree of Parallelism of the Neural Networks is Still Higher than that of any "Massively Parallel" Digital Computer.- 9.7.2 Why the Neural Signals Cannot be Approximated by Boolean Variables.- 9.7.3 The Neural Circuits do not Implement Finite Automata.- 9.7.4 Undue Views of the Logic Equivalence of the Brain and Computers on a High Level.- 9.8 "Connectionist Models".- 9.9 How can the Neural Computers be Programmed?.- 10. Optical Associative Memories.- 10.1 Nonholographic Methods.- 10.2 General Aspects of Holographic Memories.- 10.3 A Simple Principle of Holographic Associative Memory.- 10.4 Addressing in Holographic Memories.- 10.5 Recent Advances of Optical Associative Memories.- Bibliography on Pattern Recognition.- References.

8,197 citations

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TL;DR: AUC exhibits a number of desirable properties when compared to overall accuracy: increased sensitivity in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests; a standard error that decreased as both AUC and the number of test samples increased; decision threshold independent; and it is invariant to a priori class probabilities.

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the use of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as a performance measure for machine learning algorithms. As a case study we evaluate six machine learning algorithms (C4.5, Multiscale Classifier, Perceptron, Multi-layer Perceptron, k-Nearest Neighbours, and a Quadratic Discriminant Function) on six ''real world'' medical diagnostics data sets. We compare and discuss the use of AUC to the more conventional overall accuracy and find that AUC exhibits a number of desirable properties when compared to overall accuracy: increased sensitivity in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests; a standard error that decreased as both AUC and the number of test samples increased; decision threshold independent; and it is invariant to a priori class probabilities. The paper concludes with the recommendation that AUC be used in preference to overall accuracy for ''single number'' evaluation of machine learning algorithms.

5,359 citations

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03 Apr 2017

TL;DR: This work strives to develop techniques based on neural networks to tackle the key problem in recommendation --- collaborative filtering --- on the basis of implicit feedback, and presents a general framework named NCF, short for Neural network-based Collaborative Filtering.

Abstract: In recent years, deep neural networks have yielded immense success on speech recognition, computer vision and natural language processing. However, the exploration of deep neural networks on recommender systems has received relatively less scrutiny. In this work, we strive to develop techniques based on neural networks to tackle the key problem in recommendation --- collaborative filtering --- on the basis of implicit feedback. Although some recent work has employed deep learning for recommendation, they primarily used it to model auxiliary information, such as textual descriptions of items and acoustic features of musics. When it comes to model the key factor in collaborative filtering --- the interaction between user and item features, they still resorted to matrix factorization and applied an inner product on the latent features of users and items. By replacing the inner product with a neural architecture that can learn an arbitrary function from data, we present a general framework named NCF, short for Neural network-based Collaborative Filtering. NCF is generic and can express and generalize matrix factorization under its framework. To supercharge NCF modelling with non-linearities, we propose to leverage a multi-layer perceptron to learn the user-item interaction function. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets show significant improvements of our proposed NCF framework over the state-of-the-art methods. Empirical evidence shows that using deeper layers of neural networks offers better recommendation performance.

4,419 citations