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# Permeability (earth sciences)

About: Permeability (earth sciences) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15424 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 288535 citation(s).

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TL;DR: Enginsera et al. as discussed by the authors proposed an idealized model for the purpose of studying the characteristic behavior of a permeable medium which contains regions which contribute significantly to the pore volume of the system but contribute negligibly to the flow capacity.

Abstract: An idealized model has been developed for the purpose of studying the characteristic behavioroja permeable medium which contains regions which contribute sigizificantly to tbe pore volume O! the system but contribute negligibly to the flow capacity; e.g., a naturally fractured or vugular reservoir, Vnsteady-state flow in this model reservoir has been investigated analytically. The pressure buiid-up performance has been examined insomedetait; and, a technique foranalyzing tbebuild.up data to evaluate the desired parameters has been suggested. The use of this ap$roacb in the interpretation of field data has been discussed. As a result of this study, the following general conclusions can be drawn: 1. Two parameters are sufficient to characterize the deviation of the behavior of a medium with “double porosity ”from that of a homogeneously porous medium. 2. These Parameters can be evaluated by the proper analy~is of pressure buildup data ob~ained from adequately designed tests. 3. Since the build-up curve associated with this type of porous system is similar to that obtained from a stratified reservoir, an unambiguous interpretation is not possible without additional information. 4, Dif@rencing methods which utilize pressure data from the /inal stages of a buik-kp test should be used with extreme caution. INTRODUCTION In order to plan a sound exploitation program or a successful secondary-recovery pro ject, sufficient reliable information concerning the nature of the reservoir-fluid system must be available. Sincef it is evident chat an adequate description of the reservoir rock is necessary if this condition is to be fulfilled, the present investigation was undertaken for the purpose of improving the fluid-flow characterization, based on normally available data, ofs particular porous medium. DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM For many years it was widely assumed that, for the purpose of making engineering studies, two psram. . -. . Origlml manuscriptreceived fn eociaty of Petroleum Ertatneere offiae AUS. 17, 1962.Revieed manuscriptreceived.March21, 1963. P eper pr+$eented at the Fetl Meeting of the %ciot Y of. Petreleum Enginsera In Lo= Ar@Ies on Oct. 7-10, 1962. ‘ . GULF RESEARCH d DEVELOPMENT CO. PITTSBURGH, PA, eters were sufficient to desckibe the single-phase flow properties of a prodttcing formation, i.e., the absolute permeability and the effective porosity. It : later became evident that the concept of directional permeability was of more thin academic interest; consequently, the de$ee of permeability anisotropy and the orientation of the principal axes of permeability were accepted as basic parameters governing reservoir performance. 1,2 More recently, 3“6 it was recognized that at least one additional parameter was required to depict the behavior of a porous system containing region,s which contributed significantly to the pore volume but contributed negligibly to the flow capacity. Microscopically, these regions could be “dead-end” or “storage” pores or, microscopically, they could be discrete volumes of lowpermeability inatrix rock combined with natural fissures in a reservoir. It is obvious thst some provision for the ;.ncIusion of all the indicated parameters, as weIl as their spatial vstiations$ must be made if a truly useful, conceptual model of a reaetvoir is to be developed. A dichotomy Qf the internaI voids of reservoir rocks has been suggested, r~s These two classes of porosity can be described as follows: a. Primary porosity is intergranular and controlled by deposition and Iithification. It ie highly intercoririected arid “usually can be correlated with permeability since it is largely dependent on the geometry, size distribution and spatial distribution of the grains. The void systems of sands, sandstones and oolitic limestones are typical of this type. b. Secondary porosity is foramenular and is controlled by fracturing, jointing and/or solution in circulating water although it may be modified by infilling as a result of precipitation. It is not highly interconnected and usually cannot be correlated with permeability. Solution channels or vugular voids developed during weathering or buriaI in sedimentary basins are indigenous to carbonate rocks such as limestones or dolomites. Joints or fissures which occur in massive, extensive formations composed of shale, siltstone, schist, limestone or dolomite are generally vertical, and they are ascribed to tensional failure, during mechanical deformation (the permeability associated with this type of void system is often anisotropic). Shrinkage cracks are the result 1 ~ef&ence. aiven atendof p@er. ‘-

3,065 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the viscous force exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles is described by a modification of Darcy's equation, which was necessary in order to obtain consistent boundary conditions.

Abstract: A calculation is given of the viscous force, exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles. The model underlying these calculations is that of a spherical particle embedded in a porous mass. The flow through this porous mass is decribed by a modification of Darcy's equation. Such a modification was necessary in order to obtain consistent boundary conditions. A relation between permeability and particle size and density is obtained. Our results are compared with an experimental relation due to Carman.

2,308 citations

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TL;DR: The equations derived here have been applied to various permeability measurements found in the literature, such as the penetration of heavy water into animal cells, permeability of blood vessels, threshold concentration of plasmolysis and relaxation experiments with artificial membranes.

Abstract: The application of the conventional permeability equations to the study of biological membranes leads often to contradictions. It is shown that the equations generally used, based on two permeability coefficients—the solute permeability coefficient and the water permeability coefficient—are incompatible with the requirements of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The inconsistencies are removed by a thermodynamic treatment, following the approach of Staverman , which leads to a three coefficient system taking into account the interactions: solute-solvent, solute-membrane and solvent-membrane. The equations derived here have been applied to various permeability measurements found in the literature, such as: the penetration of heavy water into animal cells, permeability of blood vessels, threshold concentration of plasmolysis and relaxation experiments with artificial membranes. It is shown how the pertinent coefficients may be derived from the experimental data and how to choose suitable conditions in order to obtain all the required information on the permeability of the membranes. The significance of these coefficients for the elucidation of membrane structure is pointed out.

1,868 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an expression was derived to describe both saturated and unsaturated permeability of porous media in terms of the pore size distribution as obtained from mercury-injection data or water-desorption isotherms.

Abstract: An expression has been derived to describe both saturated and unsaturated permeability of porous media in terms of the pore size distribution as obtained from mercury-injection data or water-desorption isotherms. An interaction model has been adopted wherein both pore radius and effective area available for flow have been considered. The permeability values obtained using this expression have been compared with water and gas permeabilities of a variety of porous media. Satisfactory agreement is found between experimental and calculated values over a wide range of permeability.

1,717 citations

01 Jan 1992

TL;DR: The RETC computer code as mentioned in this paper uses the parametric models of Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten to represent the soil water retention curve, and the theoretical pore-size distribution models of Mualem and Burdine to predict the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function from observed water retention data.

Abstract: This report describes the RETC computer code for analyzing the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions of unsaturated soils. These hydraulic properties are key parameters in any quantitative description of water flow into and through the unsaturated zone of soils. The program uses the parametric models of Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten to represent the soil water retention curve, and the theoretical pore-size distribution models of Mualem and Burdine to predict the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function from observed soil water retention data. The report gives a detailed discussion of the different analytical expressions used for quantifying the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. A brief review is also given of the nonlinear least-squares parameter optimization method used for estimating the unknown coefficients in the hydraulic models. Several examples are presented to illustrate a variety of program options. The program may be used to predict the hydraulic conductivity from observed soil water retention data assuming that one observed conductivity value (not necessarily at saturation) is available. The program also permits one to fit analytical functions simultaneously to observed water retention and hydraulic conductivity data. The report serves as both a user manual and reference document. Detailed information is given on the computer program along with instructions for data input preparation and sample input and output files. A listing of the source code is also provided.

1,508 citations