About: Petroleum reservoir is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5403 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 83535 citation(s). The topic is also known as: petroleum deposit.
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TL;DR: Enginsera et al. as discussed by the authors proposed an idealized model for the purpose of studying the characteristic behavior of a permeable medium which contains regions which contribute significantly to the pore volume of the system but contribute negligibly to the flow capacity.
Abstract: An idealized model has been developed for the purpose of studying the characteristic behavioroja permeable medium which contains regions which contribute sigizificantly to tbe pore volume O! the system but contribute negligibly to the flow capacity; e.g., a naturally fractured or vugular reservoir, Vnsteady-state flow in this model reservoir has been investigated analytically. The pressure buiid-up performance has been examined insomedetait; and, a technique foranalyzing tbebuild.up data to evaluate the desired parameters has been suggested. The use of this ap$roacb in the interpretation of field data has been discussed. As a result of this study, the following general conclusions can be drawn: 1. Two parameters are sufficient to characterize the deviation of the behavior of a medium with “double porosity ”from that of a homogeneously porous medium. 2. These Parameters can be evaluated by the proper analy~is of pressure buildup data ob~ained from adequately designed tests. 3. Since the build-up curve associated with this type of porous system is similar to that obtained from a stratified reservoir, an unambiguous interpretation is not possible without additional information. 4, Dif@rencing methods which utilize pressure data from the /inal stages of a buik-kp test should be used with extreme caution. INTRODUCTION In order to plan a sound exploitation program or a successful secondary-recovery pro ject, sufficient reliable information concerning the nature of the reservoir-fluid system must be available. Sincef it is evident chat an adequate description of the reservoir rock is necessary if this condition is to be fulfilled, the present investigation was undertaken for the purpose of improving the fluid-flow characterization, based on normally available data, ofs particular porous medium. DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM For many years it was widely assumed that, for the purpose of making engineering studies, two psram. . -. . Origlml manuscriptreceived fn eociaty of Petroleum Ertatneere offiae AUS. 17, 1962.Revieed manuscriptreceived.March21, 1963. P eper pr+$eented at the Fetl Meeting of the %ciot Y of. Petreleum Enginsera In Lo= Ar@Ies on Oct. 7-10, 1962. ‘ . GULF RESEARCH d DEVELOPMENT CO. PITTSBURGH, PA, eters were sufficient to desckibe the single-phase flow properties of a prodttcing formation, i.e., the absolute permeability and the effective porosity. It : later became evident that the concept of directional permeability was of more thin academic interest; consequently, the de$ee of permeability anisotropy and the orientation of the principal axes of permeability were accepted as basic parameters governing reservoir performance. 1,2 More recently, 3“6 it was recognized that at least one additional parameter was required to depict the behavior of a porous system containing region,s which contributed significantly to the pore volume but contributed negligibly to the flow capacity. Microscopically, these regions could be “dead-end” or “storage” pores or, microscopically, they could be discrete volumes of lowpermeability inatrix rock combined with natural fissures in a reservoir. It is obvious thst some provision for the ;.ncIusion of all the indicated parameters, as weIl as their spatial vstiations$ must be made if a truly useful, conceptual model of a reaetvoir is to be developed. A dichotomy Qf the internaI voids of reservoir rocks has been suggested, r~s These two classes of porosity can be described as follows: a. Primary porosity is intergranular and controlled by deposition and Iithification. It ie highly intercoririected arid “usually can be correlated with permeability since it is largely dependent on the geometry, size distribution and spatial distribution of the grains. The void systems of sands, sandstones and oolitic limestones are typical of this type. b. Secondary porosity is foramenular and is controlled by fracturing, jointing and/or solution in circulating water although it may be modified by infilling as a result of precipitation. It is not highly interconnected and usually cannot be correlated with permeability. Solution channels or vugular voids developed during weathering or buriaI in sedimentary basins are indigenous to carbonate rocks such as limestones or dolomites. Joints or fissures which occur in massive, extensive formations composed of shale, siltstone, schist, limestone or dolomite are generally vertical, and they are ascribed to tensional failure, during mechanical deformation (the permeability associated with this type of void system is often anisotropic). Shrinkage cracks are the result 1 ~ef&ence. aiven atendof p@er. ‘-
01 Jan 1979
01 Dec 1974-Geophysics
TL;DR: In this article, a multiplicity of factors influence seismic reflection coefficients and the observed gravity of typical sedimentary rocks, including the mineral composition and the granular nature of the rock matrix, cementation, porosity, fluid content, and environmental pressure.
Abstract: A multiplicity of factors influence seismic reflection coefficients and the observed gravity of typical sedimentary rocks. Rock velocity and density depend upon the mineral composition and the granular nature of the rock matrix, cementation, porosity, fluid content, and environmental pressure. Depth of burial and geologic age also have an effect. Lithology and porosity can be related empirically to velocity by the time‐average equation. This equation is most reliable when the rock is under substantial pressure, is saturated with brine, and contains well‐cemented grains. For very low porosity rocks under large pressures, the mineral composition can be related to velocity by the theories of Voigt and Reuss. One effect of pressure variation on velocity results from the opening or closing of microcracks. For porous sedimentary rocks, only the difference between overburden and fluid pressure affects the microcrack system. Existing theory does not take into account the effect of microcrack closure on the elasti...
01 Feb 1970-AAPG Bulletin
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a taxonomic classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates, based on the time and place in which porosity is created or modified, which is important elements of a genetically oriented classification.
Abstract: Pore systems in sedimentary carbonates are generally complex in their geometry and genesis, and commonly differ markedly from those of sandstones. Current nomenclature and classifications appear inadequate for concise description or for interpretation of porosity in sedimentary carbonates. In this article we review current nomenclature, propose several new terms, and present a classification of porosity which stresses interrelations between porosity and other geologic features. The time and place in which porosity is created or modified are important elements of a genetically oriented classification. Three major geologic events in the history of a sedimentary carbonate form a practical basis for dating origin and modification of porosity, independent of the stage of lithification. These events are (1) creation of the sedimentary framework by clastic accumulation or accretionary precipitation (final deposition), (2) passage of a deposit below the zone of major influence by processes related to and operating from the deposition surface, and (3) passage of the sedimentary rock into the zone of influence by processes operating from an erosion surface (unconformity). The first event, final deposition, permits recognition of predepositional, depositional, and post epositional stages of porosity evolution. Cessation of final deposition is the most practical basis for distinguishing primary and secondary (postdepositional) porosity. Many of the key postdepositional changes in sedimentary carbonates and their pore systems occur near the surface, either very early in burial history or at a penultimate stage associated with uplift and erosion. Porosity created or modified at these times commonly can be differentiated. On the basis of the three major events heretofore distinguished, we propose to term the early burial stage "eogenetic," the late stage "telogenetic," and the normally very long intermediate stage "mesogenetic." These new terms are also applicable to process, zones of burial, or porosity formed in these times or zones (e.g., eogenetic ceme tation, mesogenetic zone, telogenetic porosity). The proposed classification is designed to aid in geologic description and interpretation of pore systems End_Page 207------------------------------ and their carbonate host rocks. It is a descriptive and genetic system in which 15 basic porosity types are recognized: seven abundant types (interparticle, intraparticle, intercrystal, moldic, fenestral, fracture, and vug), and eight more specialized types. Modifying terms are used to characterize genesis, size and shape, and abundance of porosity. The genetic modifiers involve (1) process of modification (solution, cementation, and internal sedimentation), (2) direction or stage of modification (enlarged, reduced, or filled), and (3) time of porosity formation (primary, secondary, predepositional, depositional, eogenetic, mesogenetic, and telogenetic). Used with the basic porosity type, these genetic modifiers permit explicit designation of porosity origin and evolution. Pore shapes are classed as irregular or regular, and the latter are subdivided into equant, tubular, and platy shapes. A grade scale for size of regular-shaped pores, utilizing the average diameter of equant or tubular pores and the width of platy pores, has three main classes: micropores (< 1/16 mm), mesopores (1/16-4 mm), and megapores (4-256 mm). Megapores and mesopores are divided further into small and large subclasses. Abundance is noted by percent volume and/or by ratios of porosity types. Most porosity in sedimentary carbonates can be related specifically to sedimentary or diagenetic components that constitute the texture or fabric (fabric-selective porosity). Some porosity cannot be related to these features. Fabric selectivity commonly distinguishes pore systems of primary and early postdepositional (eogenetic) origin from those of later (telogenetic) origin that normally form after extensive diagenesis has transformed the very porous assemblage of stable and unstable carbonate minerals into a much less porous aggregate of ordered dolomite and/or calcite. Porosity in most carbonate facies, including most carbonate petroleum reservoir rocks, is largely fabric selective.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, Fourth Edition as discussed by the authors provides users with tactics that will help them understand rock-fluid interaction, a fundamental step that is necessary for all reservoir engineers to grasp in order to achieve the highest reservoir performance.
Abstract: Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, Fourth Edition provides users with tactics that will help them understand rock-fluid interaction, a fundamental step that is necessary for all reservoir engineers to grasp in order to achieve the highest reservoir performance. The book brings the most comprehensive coverage on the subject matter, and is the only training tool for all reservoir and production engineers entering the oil and gas industry. This latest edition is enhanced with new real-world case studies, the latest advances in reservoir characterization, and a new chapter covering unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, including coverage on production techniques, reservoir characteristics, and the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands from NMR logs.Strengthened with a new chapter on shale oil and gas, adding the latest technological advances in the field todayCovers topics relating to porous media, permeability, fluid saturation, well logs, Dykstra-Parson, capillary pressure, wettability, Darcy's law, Hooke's law, reservoir characterization, filter-cake, and moreUpdated with relevant practical case studies to enhance on the job trainingContinues its longstanding, 20-year history as the leading book on petrophysics
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