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Phase (matter)

About: Phase (matter) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 115645 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2107721 citation(s). The topic is also known as: phase of matter.
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Journal Article
TL;DR: An experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene observes an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene.
Abstract: When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene, which exhibits electron–hole degeneracy and vanishing carrier mass near the point of charge neutrality. Indeed, a distinctive half-integer quantum Hall effect has been predicted theoretically, as has the existence of a non-zero Berry's phase (a geometric quantum phase) of the electron wavefunction—a consequence of the exceptional topology of the graphene band structure. Recent advances in micromechanical extraction and fabrication techniques for graphite structures now permit such exotic two-dimensional electron systems to be probed experimentally. Here we report an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene. Adjusting the chemical potential with the use of the electric field effect, we observe an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. The relevance of Berry's phase to these experiments is confirmed by magneto-oscillations. In addition to their purely scientific interest, these unusual quantum transport phenomena may lead to new applications in carbon-based electronic and magneto-electronic devices.

9,552 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The theory of the kinetics of phase change is developed with the experimentally supported assumptions that the new phase is nucleated by germ nuclei which already exist in the old phase, and whose number can be altered by previous treatment. The density of germ nuclei diminishes through activation of some of them to become growth nuclei for grains of the new phase, and ingestion of others by these growing grains. The quantitative relations between the density of germ nuclei, growth nuclei, and transformed volume are derived and expressed in terms of a characteristic time scale for any given substance and process. The geometry and kinetics of a crystal aggregate are studied from this point of view, and it is shown that there is strong evidence of the existence, for any given substance, of an isokinetic range of temperatures and concentrations in which the characteristic kinetics of phase change remains the same. The determination of phase reaction kinetics is shown to depend upon the solution of a functional equation of a certain type. Some of the general properties of temperature‐time and transformation‐time curves, respectively, are described and explained.

8,859 citations

01 Dec 1960
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.

6,594 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The theory of the preceding papers is generalized and the notation simplified. A cluster of molecules in a stable phase surrounded by an unstable phase is itself unstable until a critical size is reached, though for statistical reasons a distribution of such clusters may exist. Beyond the critical size, the cluster tends to grow steadily. The designation ``nuclei'' or ``grains'' is used according as the clusters are below or above the critical size. It is shown that a comprehensive description of the phenomena of phase change may be summarized in Phase Change, Grain Number and Microstructure Formulas or Diagrams, giving, respectively, the transformed volume, grain, and microstructure densities as a function of time, temperature, and other variables. To facilitate the deduction of formulas for these densities the related densities of the ``extended'' grain population are introduced. The extended population is that system of interpenetrating volumes that would obtain if the grains granulated and grew through each other without mutual interference. The extended densities are much more readily derivable from an analysis of the fundamental processes of granulation and growth. It is shown that, under very general circumstances, the densities of the actual grain population may be expressed simply in terms of the extended population.

5,215 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe20Cr20Mn20Ni20Co20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation.

3,131 citations

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