Topic

# Phase noise

About: Phase noise is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 25920 publications have been published within this topic receiving 355333 citations.

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01 Feb 1966TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the expectation value of the standard deviation of the frequency fluctuations for any finite number of data samples and the infinite time average value of a standard deviation is presented.

Abstract: A theoretical development is presented which results in a relationship between the expectation value of the standard deviation of the frequency fluctuations for any finite number of data samples and the infinite time average value of the standard deviation, which provides an invariant measure of an important quality factor of a frequency standard. A practical and straightforward method of determining the power spectral density of the frequency fluctuations from the variance of the frequency fluctuations, the sampling time, the number of samples taken, and the dependence on system bandwidth is also developed. Additional insight is also given into some of the problems that arise from the presence of "flicker noise" (spectrum proportional to |ω|-1) modulation of the frequency of an oscillator. The theory is applied in classifying the types of noise on the signals of frequency standards made available at NBS, Boulder Laboratories, such as: masers (both H and N15H 3 ), the cesium beam frequency standard employed as the U. S. Frequency Standard, and rubidium gas cells. "Flicker noise" frequency modulation was not observed on the signals of masers for sampling times ranging from 0.1 second to 4 hours. In a comparison between the NBS hydrogen maser and the NBS III cesium beam, uncorrelated random noise was observed on the frequency fluctuations for sampling times extending to 4 hours; the fractional standard deviations of the frequency fluctuations were as low as 5 parts in 1014.

2,455 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically time-varying nature of all oscillators.

Abstract: A general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically time-varying nature of all oscillators. This new approach also elucidates several previously unknown design criteria for reducing close-in phase noise by identifying the mechanisms by which intrinsic device noise and external noise sources contribute to the total phase noise. In particular, it explains the details of how 1/f noise in a device upconverts into close-in phase noise and identifies methods to suppress this upconversion. The theory also naturally accommodates cyclostationary noise sources, leading to additional important design insights. The model reduces to previously available phase noise models as special cases. Excellent agreement among theory, simulations, and measurements is observed.

2,270 citations

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Ghent University

^{1}TL;DR: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered and the degradation of the bit error rate is evaluated.

Abstract: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered. The degradation of the bit error rate (BER), caused by the presence of carrier frequency offset and carrier phase noise is analytically evaluated. It is shown that for a given BER degradation, the values of the frequency offset and the linewidth of the carrier generator that are allowed for OFDM are orders of magnitude smaller than for single carrier systems carrying the same bit rate. >

1,816 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new adaptive filtering algorithm was proposed to dramatically lower phase noise, improving both measurement accuracy and phase unwrapping, while demonstrating graceful degradation in regions of pure noise.

Abstract: The use of SAR interferometry is often impeded by decorrelation from thermal noise, temporal change, and baseline geometry. Power spectra of interferograms are typically the sum of a narrow-band component combined with broad-band noise. We describe a new adaptive filtering algorithm that dramatically lowers phase noise, improving both measurement accuracy and phase unwrapping, while demonstrating graceful degradation in regions of pure noise. The performance of the filter is demonstrated with SAR data from the ERS satellites over the Jakobshavns glacier of Greenland.

1,635 citations