Topic

# Phase (waves)

About: Phase (waves) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 48256 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 526394 citation(s).

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Abstract: Conventional optical components rely on gradual phase shifts accumulated during light propagation to shape light beams. New degrees of freedom are attained by introducing abrupt phase changes over the scale of the wavelength. A two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint such phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media. Anomalous reflection and refraction phenomena are observed in this regime in optically thin arrays of metallic antennas on silicon with a linear phase variation along the interface, which are in excellent agreement with generalized laws derived from Fermat’s principle. Phase discontinuities provide great flexibility in the design of light beams, as illustrated by the generation of optical vortices through use of planar designer metallic interfaces.

5,384 citations

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Abstract: An algorithm is presented for the rapid solution of the phase of the complete wave function whose intensity in the diffraction and imaging planes of an imaging system are known. A proof is given showing that a defined error between the estimated function and the correct function must decrease as the algorithm iterates. The problem of uniqueness is discussed and results are presented demonstrating the power of the method.

4,836 citations

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TL;DR: The carrier-envelope phase of the pulses emitted by a femtosecond mode-locked laser is stabilized by using the powerful tools of frequency-domain laser stabilization to perform absolute optical frequency measurements that were directly referenced to a stable microwave clock.

Abstract: We stabilized the carrier-envelope phase of the pulses emitted by a femtosecond mode-locked laser by using the powerful tools of frequency-domain laser stabilization. We confirmed control of the pulse-to-pulse carrier-envelope phase using temporal cross correlation. This phase stabilization locks the absolute frequencies emitted by the laser, which we used to perform absolute optical frequency measurements that were directly referenced to a stable microwave clock.

2,343 citations

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Abstract: Interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations provide a means for obtaining high-resolution digital topographic maps from measurements of amplitude and phase of two complex radar images. The phase of the radar echoes may only be measured modulo 2 pi; however, the whole phase at each point in the image is needed to obtain elevations. An approach to 'unwrapping' the 2 pi ambiguities in the two-dimensional data set is presented. It is found that noise and geometrical radar layover corrupt measurements locally, and these local errors can propagate to form global phase errors that affect the entire image. It is shown that the local errors, or residues, can be readily identified and avoided in the global phase estimation. A rectified digital topographic map derived from the unwrapped phase values is presented.

2,057 citations

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01 May 1981TL;DR: Specific conditions under which a sequence can be exactly reconstructed from phase are reviewed, both for one-dimensional and multi-dimensional sequences, and algorithms for both approximate and exact reconstruction of signals from phase information are presented.

Abstract: In the Fourier representation of signals, spectral magnitude and phase tend to play different roles and in some situations many of the important features of a signal are preserved if only the phase is retained. Furthermore, under a variety of conditions, such as when a signal is of finite length, phase information alone is sufficient to completely reconstruct a signal to within a scale factor. In this paper, we review and discuss these observations and results in a number of different contexts and applications. Specifically, the intelligibility of phase-only reconstruction for images, speech, and crystallographic structures are illustrated. Several approaches to justifying the relative importance of phase through statistical arguments are presented, along with a number of informal arguments suggesting reasons for the importance of phase. Specific conditions under which a sequence can be exactly reconstructed from phase are reviewed, both for one-dimensional and multi-dimensional sequences, and algorithms for both approximate and exact reconstruction of signals from phase information are presented. A number of applications of the observations and results in this paper are suggested.

1,718 citations