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About: Phenocryst is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4132 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 158441 citation(s).

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the effect of pre-emptive and preemptive gradients in T and O 2 in a variety of compositionally zoned ash flow tuffs.
Abstract: Every large eruption of nonbasaltic magma taps a magma reservoir that is thermally and compositionally zoned. Most small eruptions also tap parts of heterogeneous and evolving magmatic systems. Several kinds of compositionally zoned ash flow tuffs provide examples of preemptive gradients in T and ƒO2, in chemical and isotopic composition, and in the variety, abundance, and composition of phenocrysts. Such gradients help to constrain the mechanisms of magmatic differentiation operating in each system. Roofward decreases in both T and phenocryst content suggest water concentration gradients in magma chambers. Wide compositional gaps are common features of large eruptions, proving the existence of such gaps in a variety of magmatic systems. Nearly all magmatic systems are ‘fundamentally basaltic’ in the sense that mantle-derived magmas supply heat and mass to crustal systems that evolve a variety of compositional ranges. Feedback between crustal melting and interception of basaltic intrusions focuses and amplifies magmatic anomalies, suppresses basaltic volcanism, produces and sustains crustal magma chambers, and sometimes culminates in large-scale diapirism. Degassing of basalt crystallizing in the roots of these systems provides a flux of He, CO2, S, halogens, and other components, some of which may influence chemical transport in the overlying, more silicic zones. Basaltic magmas become andesitic by concurrent fractionation and assimilation of partial melts over a large depth range during protracted upward percolation in a plexus of crustal conduits. Zonation in the andesitic-dacitic compositional range develops subsequently within magma chambers, primarily by crystal fractionation. Some dacitic and rhyolitic liquids may separate from less-silicic parents by means of ascending boundary layers along the walls of convecting magma chambers. Many rhyolites, however, are direct partial melts of crustal rocks, and still others fractionate from crystal-rich intermediate parents. The zoning of rhyolitic magma is accomplished predominantly by liquid state thermodiffusion and volatile complexing; liquid structural gradients may be important, and thermal gradients across magma chamber boundary layers are critical. Intracontinental silicic batholiths form where extensional tectonism favors coalescence of crustal partial melts instead of hybridization with the intrusive basaltic magma. Cordilleran batholiths, however, result from prolonged diffuse injection of the crust by basalt that hybridizes, fractionates, and preheats the crust with pervasive mafic to intermediate forerunners, culminating in large-scale diapiric mobilization of partially molten zones from which granodioritic magmas separate. Much of the variability among magmatic systems probably reflects the depth variation of relative rates of transport of magma, heat, and volatile components, as controlled in turn by the orientation and relative magnitudes of principal stresses in the lithosphere, the thickness and composition of the affected crust, and variations in the rate and longevity of basaltic magma supply. Extension of the lithosphere may reduce the susceptibility of basaltic magmas to hybridization in the crust, but it can also enhance the role of mantle-derived volatiles in chemical transport.

1,407 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a histogram of the total phenocryst content measures the probability of the magma to be erupted as lava, and the eruption probability is defined as the product of the probability for finding the magmas at any state of crystallinity (thermal probability) and the rheological probability (Rpheological probability).
Abstract: Given a set of comagmatic lavas of similar composition but varying crystallinity, a diagram can be constructed using only the modes of the phenocrysts that quantitively shows the sequence of crystallization This is done by plotting the amount of each phenocryst against the total crystallinity or percentage of melt of the lava itself A histogram of the total phenocryst content measures the probability of the magma to be erupted as lava This eruption probability (P E ) is the product of the probability of finding the magma at any state of crystallinity (thermal probability, P T ) and the rheological probability (P R ) of the magma being physically able to erupt (ie P E =P T P R ) It is shown that P E is given by dX/dT, where X is the crystallinity of the magma as a function of temperature (T) Because crystal production is generally nonlinear—in most rocks it is step-like—P E is a bellshaped curve stradling the temperature at which the magma is one half crystallized Near the liquidus it is most favorable rheologically for the magma to erupt But the probability is small of sampling a magma near its liquidus, because it cools quickly there It is maximum when there are high rates of crystal production, because it then cools slowly As the crystallinity increases, it reaches a critical point of maximum packing (ie lowest porosity) around 50–60% crystals where it becomes rheologically impossible to erupt The magma looses its potential to become a lava and it becomes a pluton From a histogram of crystallinity and P T ,P R can be found This technique, as well as the construction of the mode-crystallization (M-C) diagram, is illustrated using a set of Aleutian lavas These lavas also show that the point of critical crystallinity decreases with increasing silica content of the lava Because this critical crystallinity is much lower for granitic magmas, they are much more probable than basaltic magmas to become plutons Beyond this point, granitic magmas can only erupt as ash flows This correlation of critical crystallinity and silica content is used to show a method by which the viscosity of the magma can be estimated as a function of crystallinity This variation is found to compare favorably with Roscoe's equation of the dependence of viscosity on the concentration of suspended solids These results show that differentiation probably can not normally take place beyond this critical crystallinity The extraction of melt beyond this critical point by filter pressing is unlikely because the assemblage dilates upon stressing Only if the phenocrysts deform viscously can additional melt be extracted, and this can probably only occur with large (−30km) bodies

744 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the composition of the melt lens is mainly moderately fractionated ferrobasalt, which is consistent with a model that effectively separates the processes of magma mixing and fractionation into different parts of a composite magma chamber.
Abstract: Geophysical evidence precludes the existence of a large, mainly molten magma chamber beneath portions of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). A reasonable model, consistent with these data, involves a thin (tens to hundreds of meters high), narrow (<1–2 km wide) melt lens overlying a zone of crystal mush that is in turn surrounded by a transition zone of mostly solidified crust with isolated pockets of magma. Evidence from the superfast spreading portion of the EPR suggests that the composition of the melt lens is mainly moderately fractionated ferrobasalt. These results have important implications for magmatic processes occurring beneath mid-ocean ridges and are consistent with a model that effectively separates the processes of magma mixing and fractionation into different parts of a composite magma chamber. Magma mixing, as evidenced by disequilibrium relations between host liquids and included phenocrysts, is especially apparent in samples from low magma supply ridges and probably mainly arises from interactions between crystals of the mush zone and new injections of primitive magma rising out of the mantle. Magmatic differentiation beneath mid-ocean ridges occurs in two parts. Migration of melts through the transition and mush zones can produce chemical trends consistent with in situ fractionation processes. Segregation of melt into molten horizons near the top of a composite magma chamber promotes the more extensive differentiation characteristic of fast spreading ridges. The optimum conditions for the formation of highly differentiated abyssal lavas is where small, discontinuous melt lenses occur, such as at intermediate spreading rates, in the vicinity of propagating rifts, and near ridge offsets at fast spreading ridges. Along-axis homogenization of subaxial magma is inhibited by the thin, high aspect ratio of the melt lens and by the high viscosities expected in the mush and transition zones. Low magma supply ridges are unlikely to be underlain by eruptable magma in a steady state sense, and eruptions at slow spreading ridges are likely to be closely coupled in time to injection events of new magma from the mantle. Extensional events at high magma supply ridges, which are more likely to be underlain by significant volumes of low-viscosity melt, can produce eruptions without requiring associated injection events. The critical magma supply necessary for the development of a melt lens near the top of a composite magma chamber is similar to that of normal ridges spreading at rates of about 50–70 mm/yr, a rate approximately corresponding to that marking an abrupt change in the morphology and gravity signal at the ridge axis. A composite magma chamber model can explain several previous enigmas concerning mid-ocean ridge basalts, including why slow spreading ridges dominantly erupt a narrow range of relatively undifferentiated lavas, why magma mixing is most evident in lavas erupted from slow spreading ridges, why fast spreading ridges erupt a wide range of generally more differentiated compositions, why bimodal lava populations occur in the vicinity of some propagating rifts, and how along-axis geochemical segmentation can occur at a scale shorter than the major tectonic segmentation of ridge axes.

723 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, solid-liquid partition coefficients between phenocrysts and the host lavas have been measured for rare-earth elements by an isotope dilution technique and the consistency of much of the data suggests that most of the phenocryst crystallized under equilibrium, or quasi-equilibrium, conditions.
Abstract: Solid-liquid partition coefficients between phenocrysts and the host lavas have been measured for rare-earth elements by an isotope dilution technique. Phenocrysts analyzed include clinopyroxenes, orthopyroxenes, olivines, micas, amphiboles, garnet, plagioclases and K-feldspar. The consistency of much of the data suggests that most of the phenocrysts crystallized under equilibrium, or quasi-equilibrium, conditions. There is sufficient data on pyroxenes and feldspars to indicate that relative and absolute partition coefficients can be correlated with the major element composition of the phenocrysts. The size of the positive Eu anomaly in feldspars increases with increasing alkali content of the feldspar.

702 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the coexisting microphenocrysts of magnetite and ilmenite together with the ferromagnesian silicates in salic volcanic rocks have been analyzed with the electron microprobe.
Abstract: The co-existing microphenocrysts of magnetite and ilmenite together with the ferromagnesian silicates in salic volcanic rocks have been analysed with the electron microprobe. The temperatures and oxygen fugacities of the oxide equilibration have been estimated from the curves of Buddington and Lindsley (1965). The co-existing ferromagnesian silicate phenocrysts are either iron-rich olivine, or orthopyroxene or biotite and amphibole; for each of these groups of phenocrysts, the oxide equilibration data are specific and fall on three distinct curves, parallel to experimental oxygen buffer curves. Many of the investigated rhyolites were quenched at temperatures near 900°C, which may represent liquidus temperatures for those with sparse phenocrysts, and also the intrusion temperature of water-undersaturated granites. The composition of the biotite phenocrysts, which are Al-poor and Ti-rich, taken in conjunction with the oxide data, suggest that two Lassen dacites precipitated biotite at a water fugacity of approximately 400 bars. The composition of the later crystallizing ferromagnesian silicates, particularly the pyroxenes which show a wide range in Fe/Mg ratio, is strongly influenced by the prior crystallization of the oxide phases. If the biotite phenocrysts are typical of acid liquids, then they are incapable of generating by fractionation a peraluminous residual liquid; rather they would tend to make a liquid peralkaline.

696 citations

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