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Phonation

About: Phonation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3970 publications have been published within this topic receiving 94829 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Perceptual validation of the relative importance of acoustic cues for signaling a breathy voice quality has been accomplished using a new voicing source model for synthesis of more natural male and female voices.
Abstract: Voice quality variations include a set of voicing sound source modifications ranging from laryngealized to normal to breathy phonation. Analysis of reiterant imitations of two sentences by ten female and six male talkers has shown that the potential acoustic cues to this type of voice quality variation include: (1) increases to the relative amplitude of the fundamental frequency component as open quotient increases; (2) increases to the amount of aspiration noise that replaces higher frequency harmonics as the arytenoids become more separated; (3) increases to lower formant bandwidths; and (4) introduction of extra pole zeros in the vocal-tract transfer function associated with tracheal coupling. Perceptual validation of the relative importance of these cues for signaling a breathy voice quality has been accomplished using a new voicing source model for synthesis of more natural male and female voices. The new formant synthesizer, KLSYN88, is fully documented here. Results of the perception study indicate that, contrary to previous research which emphasizes the importance of increased amplitude of the fundamental component, aspiration noise is perceptually most important. Without its presence, increases to the fundamental component may induce the sensation of nasality in a high-pitched voice. Further results of the acoustic analysis include the observations that: (1) over the course of a sentence, the acoustic manifestations of breathiness vary considerably--tending to increase for unstressed syllables, in utterance-final syllables, and at the margins of voiceless consonants; (2) on average, females are more breathy than males, but there are very large differences between subjects within each gender; (3) many utterances appear to end in a "breathy-laryngealized" type of vibration; and (4) diplophonic irregularities in the timing of glottal periods occur frequently, especially at the end of an utterance. Diplophonia and other deviations from perfect periodicity may be important aspects of naturalness in synthesis.

1,656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A "component patterning" model of vocal affect expression is proposed that attempts to rink the outcomes of antecedent event evaluation to biologically based response patterns and may help to stimulate hypothesis-guided research as well as provide a framework for the development of appropriate research paradigms.
Abstract: In reviewing the literature on the vocal expression of emotion, a discrepancy between reported high accuracy in vocal-auditory recognition and the lack of clear evidence for the acoustic differentiation of vocal expression is noted. The latter is explained by (a) a paucity of research on voice quality, (b) neglect of the social signaling functions of affect vocalization, and (c) insufficiently precise conceptualization of the underlying emotional states. A "component patterning" model of vocal affect expression is proposed that attempts to rink the outcomes of antecedent event evaluation to biologically based response patterns. On the basis of a literature survey of acoustic-phonetic evidence, the likely phonatory and articulatory correlates of the physiological responses characterizing different emotional states are described in the form of three major voice types (narrow-wide, lax-tense, full-thin). Specific predictions are made as to the changes in acoustic parameters resulting from changing voice types. These predictions are compared with the pattern of empirical findings yielded by a comprehensive survey of the literature on vocal cues in emotional expression. Although the comparison is largely limited to the tense-lax voice type (because acoustic parameters relevant to the other voice types have not yet been systematically studied), a high degree of convergence is revealed. It is suggested that the model may help to stimulate hypothesis-guided research as well as provide a framework for the development of appropriate research paradigms.

1,479 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ingo R. Titze1
TL;DR: It is shown that vocal tract inertance reduces the oscillation threshold pressure, whereas vocal tract resistance increases it, and the treatment is harmonized with former treatments based on two-mass models and collapsible tubes.
Abstract: A theory of vocal fold oscillation is developed on the basis of the body‐cover hypothesis. The cover is represented by a distributed surface layer that can propagate a mucosal surface wave. Linearization of the surface‐wave displacement and velocity, and further small‐amplitude approximations, yields closed‐form expressions for conditions of oscillation. The theory predicts that the lung pressure required to sustain oscillation, i.e., the oscillation threshold pressure, is reduced by reducing the mucosal wave velocity, by bringing the vocal folds closer together and by reducing the convergence angle in the glottis. The effect of vocal tract acoustic loading is included. It is shown that vocal tract inertance reduces the oscillation threshold pressure, whereas vocal tract resistance increases it. The treatment, which is applicable to falsetto and breathy voice, as well as onset or release of phonation in the absence of vocal fold collision, is harmonized with former treatments based on two‐mass models and ...

815 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings have implications for speech recognition, speech forensics, and the evolution of the human speech production system, and provide a normative standard for future studies of human vocal tract morphology and development.
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the vocal tract morphology of 129 normal humans, aged 2‐25 years. Morphometric data, including midsagittal vocal tract length, shape, and proportions, were collected using computer graphic techniques. There was a significant positive correlation between vocal tract length and body size ~either height or weight!. The data also reveal clear differences in male and female vocal tract morphology, including changes in overall vocal tract length and the relative proportions of the oral and pharyngeal cavity. These sex differences are not evident in children, but arise at puberty, suggesting that they are part of the vocal remodeling process that occurs during puberty in males. These findings have implications for speech recognition, speech forensics, and the evolution of the human speech production system, and provide a normative standard for future studies of human vocal tract morphology and development. © 1999 Acoustical Society of America.@S0001-4966~99!02008-1#

734 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recordings of productions of syllable sequences in soft, normal, and loud voice showed that with change from normal to loud voice, both males and females produced loud voice with increased pressure, accompanied by increased ac flow and increased maximum airflow declination rate.
Abstract: Measurements on the inverse filtered airflow waveform (the "glottal waveform") and of estimated average transglottal pressure and glottal airflow were made from noninvasive recordings of productions of syllable sequences in soft, normal, and loud voice for 25 male and 20 female speakers. Statistical analyses showed that with change from normal to loud voice, both males and females produced loud voice with increased pressure, accompanied by increased ac flow and increased maximum airflow declination rate. With change from normal voice, soft voice was produced with decreased pressure, ac flow and maximum airflow declination rate, and increased dc and average flow. Within the loudness conditions, there was no significant male-female difference in air pressure. Several glottal waveform parameters separated males and females in normal and loud voice. The data indicate higher ac flow and higher maximum airflow declination rate for males. In soft voice, the male and female glottal waveforms were more alike, and there was no significant difference in maximum airflow declination rate. The dc flow did not differ significantly between males and females. Possible relevance to biomechanical differences and differences in voice source characteristics between males and females and across loudness conditions is discussed.

616 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023178
2022390
2021174
2020172
2019134
2018108