About: Photoelectrochemical cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3446 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 148024 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells, which exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors.
Abstract: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3, were found to efficiently sensitize TiO2 for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO2 films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH3NH3PbI3-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH3NH3PbBr3-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.
20 Oct 2014-Chemical Society Reviews
TL;DR: This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting and recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions.
Abstract: Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under irradiation by sunlight has received much attention for production of renewable hydrogen from water on a large scale. Many challenges still remain in improving energy conversion efficiency, such as utilizing longer-wavelength photons for hydrogen production, enhancing the reaction efficiency at any given wavelength, and increasing the lifetime of the semiconductor materials. This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Controlling the semiconducting properties of photocatalysts and photoelectrode materials is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting, because they determine how much photoexcitation occurs in a semiconductor under solar illumination and how many photoexcited carriers reach the surface where water splitting takes place. Given a specific semiconductor material, surface modifications are important not only to activate the semiconductor for water splitting but also to facilitate charge separation and to upgrade the stability of the material under photoexcitation. In addition, reducing resistance loss and forming p-n junction have a significant impact on the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting. Correct evaluation of the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting is becoming more important in enabling an accurate comparison of a number of studies based on different systems. In the latter part, recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions.
TL;DR: Direct water electrolysis was achieved with a novel, integrated, monolithic photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic design that splits water directly upon illumination; light is the only energy input.
Abstract: Direct water electrolysis was achieved with a novel, integrated, monolithic photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic design. This photoelectrochemical cell, which is voltage biased with an integrated photovoltaic device, splits water directly upon illumination; light is the only energy input. The hydrogen production efficiency of this system, based on the short-circuit current and the lower heating value of hydrogen, is 12.4 percent.
TL;DR: The research shows that loading suitable dual cocatalysts on semiconductors can significantly increase the photocatalytic activities of hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and even make the overall water splitting reaction possible.
Abstract: Since the 1970s, splitting water using solar energy has been a focus of great attention as a possible means for converting solar energy to chemical energy in the form of clean and renewable hydrogen fuel. Approaches to solar water splitting include photocatalytic water splitting with homogeneous or heterogeneous photocatalysts, photoelectrochemical or photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting with a PEC cell, and electrolysis of water with photovoltaic cells coupled to electrocatalysts. Though many materials are capable of photocatalytically producing hydrogen and/or oxygen, the overall energy conversion efficiency is still low and far from practical application. This is mainly due to the fact that the three crucial steps for the water splitting reaction: solar light harvesting, charge separation and transportation, and the catalytic reduction and oxidation reactions, are not efficient enough or simultaneously. Water splitting is a thermodynamically uphill reaction, requiring transfer of multiple electrons, making it one of the most challenging reactions in chemistry. This Account describes the important roles of cocatalysts in photocatalytic and PEC water splitting reactions. For semiconductor-based photocatalytic and PEC systems, we show that loading proper cocatalysts, especially dual cocatalysts for reduction and oxidation, on semiconductors (as light harvesters) can significantly enhance the activities of photocatalytic and PEC water splitting reactions. Loading oxidation and/or reduction cocatalysts on semiconductors can facilitate oxidation and reduction reactions by providing the active sites/reaction sites while suppressing the charge recombination and reverse reactions. In a PEC water splitting system, the water oxidation and reduction reactions occur at opposite electrodes, so cocatalysts loaded on the electrode materials mainly act as active sites/reaction sites spatially separated as natural photosynthesis does. In both cases, the nature of the loaded cocatalysts and their interaction with the semiconductor through the interface/junction are important. The cocatalyst can provide trapping sites for the photogenerated charges and promote the charge separation, thus enhancing the quantum efficiency; the cocatalysts could improve the photostability of the catalysts by timely consuming of the photogenerated charges, particularly the holes; most importantly, the cocatalysts catalyze the reactions by lowering the activation energy. Our research shows that loading suitable dual cocatalysts on semiconductors can significantly increase the photocatalytic activities of hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and even make the overall water splitting reaction possible. All of these findings suggest that dual cocatalysts are necessary for developing highly efficient photocatalysts for water splitting reactions.
TL;DR: By using bifunctional surface modifiers (SH-R-COOH), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been assembled onto mesoscopic TiO(2) films and exhibits a photon-to-charge carrier generation efficiency of 12%.
Abstract: By using bifunctional surface modifiers (SH−R−COOH), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been assembled onto mesoscopic TiO2 films. Upon visible light excitation, CdSe QDs inject electrons into TiO2 nanocrystallites. Femtosecond transient absorption as well as emission quenching experiments confirm the injection from the excited state of CdSe QDs into TiO2 nanoparticles. Electron transfer from the thermally relaxed s-state occurs over a wide range of rate constant values between 7.3 × 109 and 1.95 × 1011 s-1. The injected charge carriers in a CdSe-modified TiO2 film can be collected at a conducting electrode to generate a photocurrent. The TiO2−CdSe composite, when employed as a photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell, exhibits a photon-to-charge carrier generation efficiency of 12%. Significant loss of electrons occurs due to scattering as well as charge recombination at TiO2/CdSe interfaces and internal TiO2 grain boundaries.
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