Topic

# Photon

About: Photon is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 48939 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1043897 citation(s). The topic is also known as: photons.

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TL;DR: In this article, the optical properties of submicrometre cylindrical cavities in metallic films were explored and it was shown that arrays of such holes display highly unusual zero-order transmission spectra at wavelengths larger than the array period, beyond which no diffraction occurs.

Abstract: The desire to use and control photons in a manner analogous to the control of electrons in solids has inspired great interest in such topics as the localization of light, microcavity quantum electrodynamics and near-field optics1,2,3,4,5,6. A fundamental constraint in manipulating light is the extremely low transmittivity of apertures smaller than the wavelength of the incident photon. While exploring the optical properties of submicrometre cylindrical cavities in metallic films, we have found that arrays of such holes display highly unusual zero-order transmission spectra (where the incident and detected light are collinear) at wavelengths larger than the array period, beyond which no diffraction occurs. In particular, sharp peaks in transmission are observed at wavelengths as large as ten times the diameter of the cylinders. At these maxima the transmission efficiency can exceed unity (when normalized to the area of the holes), which is orders of magnitude greater than predicted by standard aperture theory. Our experiments provide evidence that these unusual optical properties are due to the coupling of light with plasmons — electronic excitations — on the surface of the periodically patterned metal film. Measurements of transmission as a function of the incident light angle result in a photonic band diagram. These findings may find application in novel photonic devices.

7,135 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, and the energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules were described, where spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation.

Abstract: By considering a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules are described. Spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation. The discussion is limited first to a gas of dimension small compared with a wavelength. Spontaneous radiation rates and natural line breadths are calculated. For a gas of large extent the effect of photon recoil momentum on coherence is calculated. The effect of a radiation pulse in exciting "super-radiant" states is discussed. The angular correlation between successive photons spontaneously emitted by a gas initially in thermal equilibrium is calculated.

5,048 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the photon statistics of arbitrary fields in fully quantum-mechanical terms are discussed, and a general method of representing the density operator for the field is discussed as well as a simple formulation of a superposition law for photon fields.

Abstract: Methods are developed for discussing the photon statistics of arbitrary fields in fully quantum-mechanical terms. In order to keep the classical limit of quantum electrodynamics plainly in view, extensive use is made of the coherent states of the field. These states, which reduce the field correlation functions to factorized forms, are shown to offer a convenient basis for the description of fields of all types. Although they are not orthogonal to one another, the coherent states form a complete set. It is shown that any quantum state of the field may be expanded in terms of them in a unique way. Expansions are also developed for arbitrary operators in terms of products of the coherent state vectors. These expansions are discussed as a general method of representing the density operator for the field. A particular form is exhibited for the density operator which makes it possible to carry out many quantum-mechanical calculations by methods resembling those of classical theory. This representation permits clear insights into the essential distinction between the quantum and classical descriptions of the field. It leads, in addition, to a simple formulation of a superposition law for photon fields. Detailed discussions are given of the incoherent fields which are generated by superposing the outputs of many stationary sources. These fields are all shown to have intimately related properties, some of which have been known for the particular case of blackbody radiation.

4,939 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the linearity of quantum mechanics has been shown to prevent the replication of a photon of definite polarization in the presence of an excited atom, and the authors show that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.

Abstract: If a photon of definite polarization encounters an excited atom, there is typically some nonvanishing probability that the atom will emit a second photon by stimulated emission. Such a photon is guaranteed to have the same polarization as the original photon. But is it possible by this or any other process to amplify a quantum state, that is, to produce several copies of a quantum system (the polarized photon in the present case) each having the same state as the original? If it were, the amplifying process could be used to ascertain the exact state of a quantum system: in the case of a photon, one could determine its polarization by first producing a beam of identically polarized copies and then measuring the Stokes parameters1. We show here that the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids such replication and that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.

4,034 citations

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15 Jan 1995

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a simulation of the optical response functions of a multilevel system with relaxation in a multimode Brownian Oscillator Model and a wavepacket analysis of nonimpulsive measurements.

Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Quantum Dynamics in Hilbert Space 3. The Density Operator and Quantum Dynamics in Liouville Space 4. Quantum Electrodynamics, Optical Polarization, and Nonlinear Spectroscopy 5. Nonlinear Response Functions and Optical Susceptibilities 6. The Optical Response Functions of a Multilevel System with Relaxation 7. Semiclassical Simulation of the Optical Response Functions 8. The Cumulant Expansion and the Multimode Brownian Oscillator Model 9. Fluorescence, Spontaneous-Raman and Coherent-Raman Spectroscopy 10. Selective Elimination of Inhomogeneous Broadening Photon Echoes 11. Resonant Gratings, Pump-Probe, and Hole Burning Spectroscopy 12. Wavepacket Dynamics in Liouville Space The Wigner Representation 13. Wavepacket Analysis of Nonimpulsive Measurements 14. Off-Resonance Raman Scattering 15. Polarization Spectroscopy Birefringence and Dichroism 16. Nonlinear Response of Molecular Assemblies The Local-Field Approximation 17. Many Body and Cooperative Effects in the Nonlinear Response

3,897 citations