About: Photovoltaic effect is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3183 publications have been published within this topic receiving 82089 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the interpenetrating network formed from a phase-segregated mixture of two semiconducting polymers is shown to provide both the spatially distributed interfaces necessary for efficient charge photo-generation, and the means for separately collecting the electrons and holes.
Abstract: THE photovoltaic effect involves the production of electrons and holes in a semiconductor device under illumination, and their subsequent collection at opposite electrodes. In many inorganic semiconductors, photon absorption produces free electrons and holes directly1. But in molecular semiconductors, absorption creates electrona¤-hole pairs (excitons) which are bound at room temperature2, so that charge collection requires their dissociation. Exciton dissociation is known to be efficient at interfaces between materials with different electron affinities and ionization potentials, where the electron is accepted by the material with larger electron affinity and the hole by the material with lower ionization potential3. A two-layer diode structure can thus be used, in which excitons generated in either layer diffuse towards the interface between the layers. However, the exciton diffusion range is typically at least a factor of 10 smaller than the optical absorption depth, thus limiting the efficiency of charge collection3. Here we show that the interpenetrating network formed from a phase-segregated mixture of two semiconducting polymers provides both the spatially distributed interfaces necessary for efficient charge photo-generation, and the means for separately collecting the electrons and holes. Devices using thin films of these polymer mixtures show promise for large-area photodetectors.
TL;DR: It is found that bulk electric conduction in ferroelectric monodomain BiFeO3 crystals is highly nonlinear and unidirectional.
Abstract: Unidirectional electric current flow, such as that found in a diode, is essential for modern electronics. It usually occurs at asymmetric interfaces such as p-n junctions or metal/semiconductor interfaces with Schottky barriers. We report on a diode effect associated with the direction of bulk electric polarization in BiFeO3: a ferroelectric with a small optical gap edge of ∼2.2 electron volts. We found that bulk electric conduction in ferroelectric monodomain BiFeO3 crystals is highly nonlinear and unidirectional. This diode effect switches its direction when the electric polarization is flipped by an external voltage. A substantial visible-light photovoltaic effect is observed in BiFeO3 diode structures. These results should improve understanding of charge conduction mechanisms in leaky ferroelectrics and advance the design of switchable devices combining ferroelectric, electronic, and optical functionalities.
TL;DR: A fundamentally different mechanism for photovoltaic charge separation is reported, which operates over a distance of 1-2 nm and produces voltages that are significantly higher than the bandgap.
Abstract: In conventional solid-state photovoltaics, electron-hole pairs are created by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the electric field spaning a micrometre-thick depletion region. The maximum voltage these devices can produce is equal to the semiconductor electronic bandgap. Here, we report the discovery of a fundamentally different mechanism for photovoltaic charge separation, which operates over a distance of 1-2 nm and produces voltages that are significantly higher than the bandgap. The separation happens at previously unobserved nanoscale steps of the electrostatic potential that naturally occur at ferroelectric domain walls in the complex oxide BiFeO(3). Electric-field control over domain structure allows the photovoltaic effect to be reversed in polarity or turned off. This new degree of control, and the high voltages produced, may find application in optoelectronic devices.
TL;DR: It was found that films with finely distributed polymer/fulleride interpenetrating network exhibited improved solar cell conversion efficiency, and the results proved that polymer solar cells have a bright future.
Abstract: This paper describes synthesis and photovoltaic studies of a series of new semiconducting polymers with alternating thieno[3,4-b]thiophene and benzodithiophene units. The physical properties of these polymers were finely tuned to optimize their photovoltaic effect. The substitution of alkoxy side chains to the less electron-donating alkyl chains or introduction of electron-withdrawing fluorine into the polymer backbone reduced the HOMO energy levels of polymers. The structural modifications optimized polymers’ spectral coverage of absorption and their hole mobility, as well as miscibility with fulleride, and enhanced polymer solar cell performances. The open circuit voltage, Voc, for polymer solar cells was increased by adjusting polymer energy levels. It was found that films with finely distributed polymer/fulleride interpenetrating network exhibited improved solar cell conversion efficiency. Efficiency over 6% has been achieved in simple solar cells based on fluorinated PTB4/PC61BM films prepared from m...
TL;DR: All-solid-state donor/acceptor planar-heterojunction (PHJ) hybrid solar cells are constructed and their excellent performance measured.
Abstract: All-solid-state donor/acceptor planar-heterojunction (PHJ) hybrid solar cells are constructed and their excellent performance measured. The deposition of a thin C60 fullerene or fullerene-derivative (acceptor) layer in vacuum on a CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite (donor) layer creates a hybrid PHJ that displays the photovoltaic effect. Such heterojunctions are shown to be suitable for the development of newly structured, hybrid, efficient solar cells.
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