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Phthalocyanine

About: Phthalocyanine is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9932 publications have been published within this topic receiving 181342 citations. The topic is also known as: Pigment blue 16 & 29H,31H-Phthalocyanine.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1964-Nature
TL;DR: The use of metal phthalocyanines as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds has been described in the literature as mentioned in this paper, and a number of these reports were tested as cathode catalysts in fuel cells.
Abstract: THE use of metal phthalocyanines as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds has been described in the literature. A number of papers by C. Paquot have reported the catalytic activity of the nickel phthalo-cyanine in the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and their esters1, saturated ketones2, benzene hydrocarbons such as toluene and ethylbenzene3, cyclohexane hydrocarbons4, and pinene5. In addition, M. Baldwin reported the oxidation of olefins, principally isobutylene, by copper phthalocyanine supported on pumice6. A. Cook7 described the activity of iron phthalocyanine for the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. A slow degradation of the catalyst was observed which was ascribed to a complex formed between the peroxide and the phthalocyanine. On the basis of these reports, a number of phthalocyanines were tested as cathode catalysts in fuel cells.

1,607 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Strongly electron-donating perylene carboxylic acid derivatives with amine substituents at their perylene core have allowed us to increase the power conversion efficiency of up to approximately 7% in perylene-sensitized solar cells.
Abstract: Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the excited state. Novel unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers with "push" and "pull" groups have made it possible to reduce the aggregation on a TiO(2) surface, tune the level of the excited state, and strengthen the electronic coupling between the phthalocyanine core and the TiO(2) surface. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of up to 3.5% has been achieved. Perylenes are well-known as chemically, thermally, and photophysically stable dyes and have been used in various optical devices and applications. Nevertheless, the power conversion efficiency remained low compared to other organic dyes. The origin of such limited cell performance is the poor electron-donating abilities of the perylenes, which makes it difficult to inject electrons from the excited singlet state of the perylenes to the conduction band of the TiO(2) electrode efficiently. Strongly electron-donating perylene carboxylic acid derivatives with amine substituents at their perylene core have allowed us to increase the power conversion efficiency of up to approximately 7% in perylene-sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of large pi-aromatic molecule-sensitized solar cells could be improved significantly if the dyes with larger red and near-infrared absorption could be developed.

910 citations

Book
13 Jul 1998
TL;DR: In this paper, an introduction to the phthalocyanines is given and an overview of their properties and uses in Pc materials are discussed. But the main focus is on the fabrication of Pc material and not on its use in other applications.
Abstract: 1. An introduction to the phthalocyanines 2. Phthalocyanine synthesis 3. The fabrication of phthalocyanine materials 4. Optical properties 5. Electronic conductivity 6. Optoelectronic properties of phthalocyanine materials 7. Miscellaneous properties and uses of Pc materials 8. Future developments.

874 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

752 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023286
2022606
2021285
2020287
2019287
2018355