About: Phylogenetic tree is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26643 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1340967 citation(s). The topic is also known as: evolutionary tree & evolutionary diagram.
01 Oct 2011-Molecular Biology and Evolution
TL;DR: The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models, inferring ancestral states and sequences, and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site.
Abstract: Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.
01 Jan 2001-
Joseph Felsenstein1•Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1981-Journal of Molecular Evolution
TL;DR: A computationally feasible method for finding such maximum likelihood estimates is developed, and a computer program is available that allows the testing of hypotheses about the constancy of evolutionary rates by likelihood ratio tests.
Abstract: The application of maximum likelihood techniques to the estimation of evolutionary trees from nucleic acid sequence data is discussed. A computationally feasible method for finding such maximum likelihood estimates is developed, and a computer program is available. This method has advantages over the traditional parsimony algorithms, which can give misleading results if rates of evolution differ in different lineages. It also allows the testing of hypotheses about the constancy of evolutionary rates by likelihood ratio tests, and gives rough indication of the error of the estimate of the tree.
Ziheng Yang1•Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2007-Molecular Biology and Evolution
TL;DR: PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML), which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses.
Abstract: PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).
01 Apr 2000-Molecular Biology and Evolution
TL;DR: A computerized method is presented that reduces to a certain extent the necessity of manually editing multiple alignments, makes the automation of phylogenetic analysis of large data sets feasible, and facilitates the reproduction of the final alignment by other researchers.
Abstract: The use of some multiple-sequence alignments in phylogenetic analysis, particularly those that are not very well conserved, requires the elimination of poorly aligned positions and divergent regions, since they may not be homologous or may have been saturated by multiple substitutions. A computerized method that eliminates such positions and at the same time tries to minimize the loss of informative sites is presented here. The method is based on the selection of blocks of positions that fulfill a simple set of requirements with respect to the number of contiguous conserved positions, lack of gaps, and high conservation of flanking positions, making the final alignment more suitable for phylogenetic analysis. To illustrate the efficiency of this method, alignments of 10 mitochondrial proteins from several completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes belonging to diverse eukaryotes were used as examples. The percentages of removed positions were higher in the most divergent alignments. After removing divergent segments, the amino acid composition of the different sequences was more uniform, and pairwise distances became much smaller. Phylogenetic trees show that topologies can be different after removing conserved blocks, particularly when there are several poorly resolved nodes. Strong support was found for the grouping of animals and fungi but not for the position of more basal eukaryotes. The use of a computerized method such as the one presented here reduces to a certain extent the necessity of manually editing multiple alignments, makes the automation of phylogenetic analysis of large data sets feasible, and facilitates the reproduction of the final alignment by other researchers.