About: Physical disability is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2607 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 85714 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
•23 Apr 1992
TL;DR: This review discusses both new measures and new work on more well-established measures, both for use in specific diseases and for more general use, that are slowly being developed.
Abstract: Part 1 Background to the choice and use of measures: pathology, impairment, disability, handicap - a useful model measurement and assessment - what and why? classification of impairment, disability and handicap choosing a measure. Part 2 Measurement at different levels: measures of pathology motor and sensory impairments cognitive and emotional impairments personal physical disability global disability measures, extended ADL and social interaction handicap and quality of life. Part 3 Measurement in practice: measurement in some specific diseases measurement in some specific circumstances. Part 4 Measures for use in neurological disability: measures of cognitive impairment and disability measures of motor impairment measures of "focal" disability activities of daily living (ADL) and extended ADL tests global measures of disability measures of handicap and quality of life measures of emotion and social interaction multiple sclerosis stroke scales head injury Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders miscellaneous measures.
TL;DR: Future applications of these cutpoints include the comparison of morbidity risk in older persons with normal muscle mass and those with sarcopenia, the determination and comparison of sarc Openia prevalences, and the estimation of health-care costs attributable to sarcopenian disease.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine skeletal muscle cutpoints for identifying elevated physical disability risk in older adults. Subjects included 4,449 older (> or = 60 years) participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1988-1994. Physical disability was assessed by questionnaire, and bioimpedance was used to estimate skeletal muscle, which was normalized for height. Receiver operating characteristics were used to develop the skeletal muscle cutpoints associated with a high likelihood of physical disability. Odds for physical disability were compared in subjects whose measures fell above and below these cutpoints. Skeletal muscle cutpoints of 5.76-6.75 and < or =5.75 kg/m2 were selected to denote moderate and high physical disability risk in women. The corresponding values in men were 8.51-10.75 and < or =8.50 kg/m2. Compared with women with low-risk skeletal muscle values, women with moderate- and high-risk skeletal muscle values had odds for physical disability of 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 2.04) and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.91, 5.73), respectively. The corresponding odds in men were 3.65 (95% CI: 1.92, 6.94) and 4.71 (95% CI: 2.28, 9.74). This study presents skeletal muscle cutpoints for physical disability risk in older adults. Future applications of these cutpoints include the comparison of morbidity risk in older persons with normal muscle mass and those with sarcopenia, the determination and comparison of sarcopenia prevalences, and the estimation of health-care costs attributable to sarcopenia.
01 Nov 1998
TL;DR: Estimates of the overall burden of musculoskeletal pain that combine the results of site specific surveys will be too high, and those that do not adjust for socioeconomic factors will beToo low.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Epidemiologically-based rheumatology healthcare needs assessment requires an understanding of the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the community, of the reasons why people consult in primary care, and of the proportion of people who would benefit from referral to secondary care and paramedical services. This paper reports the first phase of such a needs assessment exercise. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative frequency of musculoskeletal pain in different, and multiple, anatomical sites in the adult population. SETTING Three general practices in the former Tameside and Glossop Health Authority, Greater Manchester, UK, a predominantly urban area. DESIGN Population survey. METHODS An age and sex stratified sample of 6000 adults from the three practices was mailed a questionnaire that sought data on demographic factors, musculoskeletal symptoms (pain in the past month lasting for more than a week), and physical disability (using the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire- mHAQ). The areas of pain covered were neck, back, shoulder, elbow, hand, hip, knee, and multiple joints. The Carstairs index was used as a measure of social deprivation of the postcode sector in which the person lived. RESULTS The response rate after two reminders was 78.5%. Non-responders were more likely to live in areas of high social deprivation. People who lived in more deprived areas were also more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, especially backpain. After adjusting for social deprivation the rates of musculoskeletal pain did not differ between the practices and so their results were combined. After adjustment for social deprivation, the most common site of pain was back (23%; 95% CI 21, 25) followed by knee (19%; 95% CI 18, 21), and shoulder (16%; 95% CI 14, 17). The majority of subjects who reported pain had pain in more than one site. The prevalence of physical disability in the community rose with age. It was highest in those with multiple joint problems but was also high in those with isolated back or knee pain. CONCLUSION Musculoskeletal pain is common in the community. People who live in socially deprived areas have more musculoskeletal symptoms. Estimates of the overall burden of musculoskeletal pain that combine the results of site specific surveys will be too high, those that do not adjust for socioeconomic factors will be too low.
TL;DR: The consistent relationship of psychopathology and disability indicates the compelling personal and socioeconomic impact of common mental illnesses across cultures and suggests the importance of impairments of higher-order human capacities as determinants of functional disability.
Abstract: Objective. —To examine the impact of common mental illness on functional disability and the cross-cultural consistency of this relationship while controlling for physical illness. A secondary objective was to determine the level of disability associated with specific psychiatric disorders. Design. —A cross-sectional sample selected by two-stage sampling. Setting. —Primary health care facilities in 14 countries covering most major cultures and languages. Patients. —A total of 25916 consecutive attenders of these facilities were screened for psychopathology using the General Health Questionnaire (96% response). Screened patients were sampled from the General Health Questionnaire score strata for the second-stage Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered to 5447 patients (62% response). Main Outcome Measures. —Patient-reported physical disability, number of disability days, and interviewer-rated occupational role functioning. Results. —After controlling for physical disease severity, psychopathology was consistently associated with increased disability. Physical disease severity was an independent, although weaker, contributor to disability. A dose-response relationship was found between severity of mental illness and disability. Disability was most prominent among patients with major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety, and neurasthenia; disorder-specific differences were modest after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity. Results were consistent across disability measures and across centers. Conclusions. —The consistent relationship of psychopathology and disability indicates the compelling personal and socioeconomic impact of common mental illnesses across cultures. This suggests the importance of impairments of higher-order human capacities (eg, emotion, motivation, and cognition) as determinants of functional disability. (JAMA. 1994;272:1741-1748)
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