About: Piezoelectricity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 32280 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 512422 citation(s). The topic is also known as: piezoelectric effect.
TL;DR: This approach has the potential of converting mechanical, vibrational, and/or hydraulic energy into electricity for powering nanodevices.
Abstract: We have converted nanoscale mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowire (NW) arrays. The aligned NWs are deflected with a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode. The coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting properties in zinc oxide creates a strain field and charge separation across the NW as a result of its bending. The rectifying characteristic of the Schottky barrier formed between the metal tip and the NW leads to electrical current generation. The efficiency of the NW-based piezoelectric power generator is estimated to be 17 to 30%. This approach has the potential of converting mechanical, vibrational, and/or hydraulic energy into electricity for powering nanodevices.
TL;DR: A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT is reported, achieved through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals.
Abstract: Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.
Abstract: The piezoelectric properties of relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals, such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 were investigated for electromechanical actuators. In contrast to polycrystalline materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, morphotropic phase boundary compositions were not essential for high piezoelectric strain. Piezoelectric coefficients (d33’s)>2500 pC/N and subsequent strain levels up to >0.6% with minimal hysteresis were observed. Crystallographically, high strains are achieved for 〈001〉 oriented rhombohedral crystals, although 〈111〉 is the polar direction. Ultrahigh strain levels up to 1.7%, an order of magnitude larger than those available from conventional piezoelectric and electrostrictive ceramics, could be achieved being related to an E-field induced phase transformation. High electromechanical coupling (k33)>90% and low dielectric loss <1%, along with large strain make these crystals promising candidates for high performance solid state actuators.
Gene H. Haertling1•Institutions (1)
Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.
Abstract: The spontaneous polarization, dynamical Born charges, and piezoelectric constants of the III-V nitrides AlN, GaN, and InN are studied ab initio using the Berry-phase approach to polarization in solids. The piezoelectric constants are found to be up to ten times larger than in conventional III-V and II-VI semiconductor compounds, and comparable to those of ZnO. Further properties at variance with those of conventional III-V compounds are the sign of the piezoelectric constants (positive as in II-VI compounds) and the very large spontaneous polarization.