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Topic

Pixel

About: Pixel is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 136524 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1522234 citation(s). The topic is also known as: px & picture element.

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Chris Stauffer1, W.E.L. Grimson1Institutions (1)
23 Jun 1999-
TL;DR: This paper discusses modeling each pixel as a mixture of Gaussians and using an on-line approximation to update the model, resulting in a stable, real-time outdoor tracker which reliably deals with lighting changes, repetitive motions from clutter, and long-term scene changes.

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Abstract: A common method for real-time segmentation of moving regions in image sequences involves "background subtraction", or thresholding the error between an estimate of the image without moving objects and the current image. The numerous approaches to this problem differ in the type of background model used and the procedure used to update the model. This paper discusses modeling each pixel as a mixture of Gaussians and using an on-line approximation to update the model. The Gaussian, distributions of the adaptive mixture model are then evaluated to determine which are most likely to result from a background process. Each pixel is classified based on whether the Gaussian distribution which represents it most effectively is considered part of the background model. This results in a stable, real-time outdoor tracker which reliably deals with lighting changes, repetitive motions from clutter, and long-term scene changes. This system has been run almost continuously for 16 months, 24 hours a day, through rain and snow.

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7,436 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Luc Vincent1, Pierre Soille1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A fast and flexible algorithm for computing watersheds in digital gray-scale images is introduced, based on an immersion process analogy, which is reported to be faster than any other watershed algorithm.

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Abstract: A fast and flexible algorithm for computing watersheds in digital gray-scale images is introduced. A review of watersheds and related motion is first presented, and the major methods to determine watersheds are discussed. The algorithm is based on an immersion process analogy, in which the flooding of the water in the picture is efficiently simulated using of queue of pixel. It is described in detail provided in a pseudo C language. The accuracy of this algorithm is proven to be superior to that of the existing implementations, and it is shown that its adaptation to any kind of digital grid and its generalization to n-dimensional images (and even to graphs) are straightforward. The algorithm is reported to be faster than any other watershed algorithm. Applications of this algorithm with regard to picture segmentation are presented for magnetic resonance (MR) imagery and for digital elevation models. An example of 3-D watershed is also provided. >

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4,698 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Julian Besag1Institutions (1)
Abstract: may 7th, 1986, Professor A. F. M. Smith in the Chair] SUMMARY A continuous two-dimensional region is partitioned into a fine rectangular array of sites or "pixels", each pixel having a particular "colour" belonging to a prescribed finite set. The true colouring of the region is unknown but, associated with each pixel, there is a possibly multivariate record which conveys imperfect information about its colour according to a known statistical model. The aim is to reconstruct the true scene, with the additional knowledge that pixels close together tend to have the same or similar colours. In this paper, it is assumed that the local characteristics of the true scene can be represented by a nondegenerate Markov random field. Such information can be combined with the records by Bayes' theorem and the true scene can be estimated according to standard criteria. However, the computational burden is enormous and the reconstruction may reflect undesirable largescale properties of the random field. Thus, a simple, iterative method of reconstruction is proposed, which does not depend on these large-scale characteristics. The method is illustrated by computer simulations in which the original scene is not directly related to the assumed random field. Some complications, including parameter estimation, are discussed. Potential applications are mentioned briefly.

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4,401 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Richard Adams1, Leanne Bischof1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This correspondence presents a new algorithm for segmentation of intensity images which is robust, rapid, and free of tuning parameters, and suggests two ways in which it can be employed, namely, by using manual seed selection or by automated procedures.

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Abstract: We present here a new algorithm for segmentation of intensity images which is robust, rapid, and free of tuning parameters. The method, however, requires the input of a number of seeds, either individual pixels or regions, which will control the formation of regions into which the image will be segmented. In this correspondence, we present the algorithm, discuss briefly its properties, and suggest two ways in which it can be employed, namely, by using manual seed selection or by automated procedures. >

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3,082 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Jun 2016-
TL;DR: This paper presents the first convolutional neural network capable of real-time SR of 1080p videos on a single K2 GPU and introduces an efficient sub-pixel convolution layer which learns an array of upscaling filters to upscale the final LR feature maps into the HR output.

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Abstract: Recently, several models based on deep neural networks have achieved great success in terms of both reconstruction accuracy and computational performance for single image super-resolution. In these methods, the low resolution (LR) input image is upscaled to the high resolution (HR) space using a single filter, commonly bicubic interpolation, before reconstruction. This means that the super-resolution (SR) operation is performed in HR space. We demonstrate that this is sub-optimal and adds computational complexity. In this paper, we present the first convolutional neural network (CNN) capable of real-time SR of 1080p videos on a single K2 GPU. To achieve this, we propose a novel CNN architecture where the feature maps are extracted in the LR space. In addition, we introduce an efficient sub-pixel convolution layer which learns an array of upscaling filters to upscale the final LR feature maps into the HR output. By doing so, we effectively replace the handcrafted bicubic filter in the SR pipeline with more complex upscaling filters specifically trained for each feature map, whilst also reducing the computational complexity of the overall SR operation. We evaluate the proposed approach using images and videos from publicly available datasets and show that it performs significantly better (+0.15dB on Images and +0.39dB on Videos) and is an order of magnitude faster than previous CNN-based methods.

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3,010 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202248
20212,886
20205,833
20197,787
20187,447
20176,585

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Tetsujiro Kondo

229 papers, 2.4K citations

Eric R. Fossum

56 papers, 3.8K citations

Kondo Tetsujiro

53 papers, 223 citations

Amine Bermak

47 papers, 724 citations

Robert P. Loce

40 papers, 567 citations