About: Plasmodium falciparum is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21326 publications have been published within this topic receiving 800448 citations.
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TL;DR: The genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7 is reported, which is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria.
Abstract: The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date. Genes involved in antigenic variation are concentrated in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. Compared to the genomes of free-living eukaryotic microbes, the genome of this intracellular parasite encodes fewer enzymes and transporters, but a large proportion of genes are devoted to immune evasion and host-parasite interactions. Many nuclear-encoded proteins are targeted to the apicoplast, an organelle involved in fatty-acid and isoprenoid metabolism. The genome sequence provides the foundation for future studies of this organism, and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria.
TL;DR: Synchronous development of the erythrocytic stages of a human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture was accomplished by suspending cultured parasites in 5% D-sorbitol and subsequent reintroduction into culture.
Abstract: Synchronous development of the erythrocytic stages of a human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture was accomplished by suspending cultured parasites in 5% D-sorbitol and subsequent reintroduction into culture. Immediately after sorbitol treatment, cultures consisted mainly of single and multiple ring-form infections. At the same time, varying degrees of lysis of erythrocytes infected with the more mature stages of the parasite was evident. Approximately 95% of the parasites were in the ring stage of development at 48 and 96 hr after sorbitol treatment-likewise, a high percentage of trophozoite and schizont stages was observed at 24, 72, and 120 hr. D-Mannitol produced similar, selective, lytic effects.
TL;DR: It is estimated that there were 515 (range 300–660) million episodes of clinical P. falciparum malaria in 2002, up to 50% higher than those reported by the World Health Organization and 200% higher for areas outside Africa, reflecting the WHO's reliance upon passive national reporting for these countries.
Abstract: Interest in mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation and to provide a robust framework for evaluating its global economic impact. Comparison of older and more recent malaria maps shows how the disease has been geographically restricted, but it remains entrenched in poor areas of the world with climates suitable for transmission. Here we provide an empirical approach to estimating the number of clinical events caused by Plasmodium falciparum worldwide, by using a combination of epidemiological, geographical and demographic data. We estimate that there were 515 (range 300-660) million episodes of clinical P. falciparum malaria in 2002. These global estimates are up to 50% higher than those reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 200% higher for areas outside Africa, reflecting the WHO's reliance upon passive national reporting for these countries. Without an informed understanding of the cartography of malaria risk, the global extent of clinical disease caused by P. falciparum will continue to be underestimated.
TL;DR: The overall median clearance times were 84 hours (interquartile range, 60 to 96) in Pailin and 48 hours in Wang Pha (P<0.001) in each of the two locations as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: We studied 40 patients in each of the two locations. The overall median parasite clearance times were 84 hours (interquartile range, 60 to 96) in Pailin and 48 hours (interquartile range, 36 to 66) in Wang Pha (P<0.001). Recrudescence confirmed by means of polymerase-chain-reaction assay occurred in 6 of 20 patients (30%) receiving artesunate monotherapy and 1 of 20 (5%) receiving artesunate–mefloquine therapy in Pailin, as compared with 2 of 20 (10%) and 1 of 20 (5%), respectively, in Wang Pha (P = 0. 31). These markedly different parasitologic responses were not explained by differences in age, artesunate or dihydroartemisinin pharmacokinetics, results of isotopic in vitro sensitivity tests, or putative molecular correlates of P. falciparum drug resistance (mutations or amplifications of the gene encoding a multidrug resistance protein [PfMDR1] or mutations in the gene encoding sarco–endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase6 [PfSERCA]). Adverse events were mild and did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS P. falciparum has reduced in vivo susceptibility to artesunate in western Cambodia as compared with northwestern Thailand. Resistance is characterized by slow parasite clearance in vivo without corresponding reductions on conventional in vitro susceptibility testing. Containment measures are urgently needed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00493363, and Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN64835265.)
TL;DR: A rapid, semiautomated microdilution method was developed for measuring the activity of potential antimalarial drugs against cultured intraerythrocytic asexual forms of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and results demonstrated that the method is sensitive and precise.
Abstract: A rapid, semiautomated microdilution method was developed for measuring the activity of potential antimalarial drugs against cultured intraerythrocytic asexual forms of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Microtitration plates were used to prepare serial dilutions of the compounds to be tested. Parasites, obtained from continuous stock cultures, were subcultured in these plates for 42 h. Inhibition of uptake of a radiolabeled nucleic acid precursor by the parasites served as the indicator of antimalarial activity. Results of repeated measurements of activity with chloroquine, quinine, and the investigational new drug mefloquine demonstrated that the method is sensitive and precise. Several additional antimalarial drugs and compounds of interest were tested in vitro, and the results were consistent with available in vivo data. The use of P. falciparum isolates with known susceptibility to antimalarial drugs also permitted evaluation of the cross-resistance potential of each compound tested. The applications and expectations of this new test system within a drug development program are discussed.
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