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Pluton

About: Pluton is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6525 publications have been published within this topic receiving 186689 citations.


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TL;DR: Porphyry Cu systems are the most widely distributed mineralization types at convergent plate boundaries, including porphyry deposits centered on intrusions; skarn, carbonate-replacement, and sediment-hosted Au deposits in increasingly peripheral locations; and superjacent high and intermediate-sulfidation epithermal deposits as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Porphyry Cu systems host some of the most widely distributed mineralization types at convergent plate boundaries, including porphyry deposits centered on intrusions; skarn, carbonate-replacement, and sediment-hosted Au deposits in increasingly peripheral locations; and superjacent high- and intermediate-sulfidation epithermal deposits. The systems commonly define linear belts, some many hundreds of kilometers long, as well as occurring less commonly in apparent isolation. The systems are closely related to underlying composite plutons, at paleodepths of 5 to 15 km, which represent the supply chambers for the magmas and fluids that formed the vertically elongate (>3 km) stocks or dike swarms and associated mineralization. The plutons may erupt volcanic rocks, but generally prior to initiation of the systems. Commonly, several discrete stocks are emplaced in and above the pluton roof zones, resulting in either clusters or structurally controlled alignments of porphyry Cu systems. The rheology and composition of the host rocks may strongly influence the size, grade, and type of mineralization generated in porphyry Cu systems. Individual systems have life spans of ~100,000 to several million years, whereas deposit clusters or alignments as well as entire belts may remain active for 10 m.y. or longer. The alteration and mineralization in porphyry Cu systems, occupying many cubic kilometers of rock, are zoned outward from the stocks or dike swarms, which typically comprise several generations of intermediate to felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry Cu ± Au ± Mo deposits are centered on the intrusions, whereas carbonate wall rocks commonly host proximal Cu-Au skarns, less common distal Zn-Pb and/or Au skarns, and, beyond the skarn front, carbonate-replacement Cu and/or Zn-Pb-Ag ± Au deposits, and/or sediment-hosted (distal-disseminated) Au deposits. Peripheral mineralization is less conspicuous in noncarbonate wall rocks but may include base metal- or Au-bearing veins and mantos. High-sulfidation epithermal deposits may occur in lithocaps above porphyry Cu deposits, where massive sulfide lodes tend to develop in deeper feeder structures and Au ± Ag-rich, disseminated deposits within the uppermost 500 m or so. Less commonly, intermediate-sulfidation epithermal mineralization, chiefly veins, may develop on the peripheries of the lithocaps. The alteration-mineralization in the porphyry Cu deposits is zoned upward from barren, early sodic-calcic through potentially ore-grade potassic, chlorite-sericite, and sericitic, to advanced argillic, the last of these constituting the lithocaps, which may attain >1 km in thickness if unaffected by significant erosion. Low sulfidation-state chalcopyrite ± bornite assemblages are characteristic of potassic zones, whereas higher sulfidation-state sulfides are generated progressively upward in concert with temperature decline and the concomitant greater degrees of hydrolytic alteration, culminating in pyrite ± enargite ± covellite in the shallow parts of the litho-caps. The porphyry Cu mineralization occurs in a distinctive sequence of quartz-bearing veinlets as well as in disseminated form in the altered rock between them. Magmatic-hydrothermal breccias may form during porphyry intrusion, with some of them containing high-grade mineralization because of their intrinsic permeability. In contrast, most phreatomagmatic breccias, constituting maar-diatreme systems, are poorly mineralized at both the porphyry Cu and lithocap levels, mainly because many of them formed late in the evolution of systems. Porphyry Cu systems are initiated by injection of oxidized magma saturated with S- and metal-rich, aqueous fluids from cupolas on the tops of the subjacent parental plutons. The sequence of alteration-mineralization events charted above is principally a consequence of progressive rock and fluid cooling, from >700° to <250°C, caused by solidification of the underlying parental plutons and downward propagation of the lithostatic-hydrostatic transition. Once the plutonic magmas stagnate, the high-temperature, generally two-phase hyper-saline liquid and vapor responsible for the potassic alteration and contained mineralization at depth and early overlying advanced argillic alteration, respectively, gives way, at <350°C, to a single-phase, low- to moderate-salinity liquid that causes the sericite-chlorite and sericitic alteration and associated mineralization. This same liquid also causes mineralization of the peripheral parts of systems, including the overlying lithocaps. The progressive thermal decline of the systems combined with synmineral paleosurface degradation results in the characteristic overprinting (telescoping) and partial to total reconstitution of older by younger alteration-mineralization types. Meteoric water is not required for formation of this alteration-mineralization sequence although its late ingress is commonplace. Many features of porphyry Cu systems at all scales need to be taken into account during planning and execution of base and precious metal exploration programs in magmatic arc settings. At the regional and district scales, the occurrence of many deposits in belts, within which clusters and alignments are prominent, is a powerful exploration concept once one or more systems are known. At the deposit scale, particularly in the porphyry Cu environment, early-formed features commonly, but by no means always, give rise to the best ore-bodies. Late-stage alteration overprints may cause partial depletion or complete removal of Cu and Au, but metal concentration may also result. Recognition of single ore deposit types, whether economic or not, in porphyry Cu systems may be directly employed in combination with alteration and metal zoning concepts to search for other related deposit types, although not all those permitted by the model are likely to be present in most systems. Erosion level is a cogent control on the deposit types that may be preserved and, by the same token, on those that may be anticipated at depth. The most distal deposit types at all levels of the systems tend to be visually the most subtle, which may result in their being missed due to overshadowing by more prominent alteration-mineralization.

2,211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, anorthositic and gabbroic intrusives were chosen to represent both the temporal and spatial ranges of plutonic activity that formed the Duluth Complex and related mafic intrusions.
Abstract: Precise resolution of the timing of igneous activity is crucial to understanding the dynamic processes associated with continental rifting. Mafic intrusive rocks constitute a major portion of the exposed 1100 Ma (Keweenawan) Midcontinent Rift system in northeastern Minnesota; however, prior to this study, geochronological data were insufficient to allow rigorous interpretation of intrusive histories and their relationships to extrusive suites. Eight anorthositic and gabbroic intrusives were chosen to represent both the temporal and spatial ranges of plutonic activity that formed the Duluth Complex and related mafic intrusions. U-Pb isotopic analyses from zircons and baddeleyites result in U-Pb concordant ages with little or no ambiguity introduced by inherited components, Pb loss or common Pb. The earliest Keweenawan plutonism exposed in Minnesota occurs along the northeastern flank of the Duluth Complex as a series of layered gabbros (Nathan's layered series) emplaced at 1106.9 ± 0.6 Ma. This sequence of gabbro sheets shares temporal, spatial, and compositional similarities with the nearby Logan sills in Ontario. Four Duluth Complex anorthositic and troctolitic series samples from widely separated areas have unresolvable ages between 1099.3 ± 0.3 and 1098.6 ± 0.5 Ma, indicating a very short duration for peak intrusive activity (0.5–1 m.y.). The unresolvable ages between anorthositic and troctolitic plutons suggest that these two magma series are more closely related than previously modeled and argue strongly for the need to reexamine their fundamental petrogenetic relationships. These dates also imply that the major reverse-to-normal magnetic polarity switch, used throughout the rift system as an important correlation tool, occurred prior to 1099 Ma. This date is several million years earlier than previously suspected and emphasizes the need for further paleomagnetic and geochronological data from the overlying volcanics. Much of the hypabyssal intrusive suite within the volcanic pile overlying Duluth Complex plutons may be significantly younger than the main pulse of plutonic activity. Two hypabyssal bodies, the Sonju Lake intrusion and gabbro at Silver Bay, were emplaced at 1096.1 ± 0.8 Ma and 1095.8 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. Dates reported here and in previous studies support the concept of episodic tectonomagmatic rift development where magmatism was apparently concentrated in episodes of short duration (<1–3 m.y.) interspersed with longer hiatuses (2–8 m.y.).

1,425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2003-Geology
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the properties of inheritance-rich and inheritance-poor granitoids and found that the latter were probably undersaturated in zircon at the source, and hence the calculated T Zr is likely to be an underestimate of their initial temperature.
Abstract: Zircon saturation temperatures ( T Zr) calculated from bulk-rock compositions provide minimum estimates of temperature if the magma was undersaturated, but maxima if it was saturated. For plutons with abundant inherited zircon, T Zr provides a useful estimate of initial magma temperature at the source, an important parameter that is otherwise inaccessible. Among 54 investigated plutons, there is a clear distinction between T Zr for inheritance-rich (mean 766 °C) and inheritance-poor (mean 837 °C) granitoids. The latter were probably undersaturated in zircon at the source, and hence the calculated T Zr is likely to be an underestimate of their initial temperature. These data suggest fundamentally different mechanisms of magma generation, transport, and emplacement. “Hot” felsic magmas with minimal inheritance probably require advective heat input into the crust, are crystal poor, and readily erupt, whereas “cold,” inheritance-rich magmas require fluid influx, are richer in crystals, and are unlikely to erupt.

1,045 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Most Phanerozoic granitoids of Central Asia are characterised by low initial Sr isotopic ratios, positive eNd(T) values and young Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) of 300-1200 Ma.
Abstract: The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), also known as the Altaid Tectonic Collage, is characterised by a vast distribution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. The granitoids have a wide range of compositions and roughly show a temporal evolution from calcalkaline to alkaline to peralkaline series. The emplacement times for most granitic plutons fall between 500 Ma and 100 Ma, but only a small proportion of plutons have been precisely dated. The Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of these granitoids suggest their juvenile characteristics, hence implying a massive addition of new continental crust in the Phanerozoic. In this paper we document the available isotopic data to support this conclusion. Most Phanerozoic granitoids of Central Asia are characterised by low initial Sr isotopic ratios, positive eNd(T) values and young Sm—Nd model ages (TDM) of 300-1200 Ma. This is in strong contrast with the coeval granitoids emplaced in the European Caledonides and Hercynides. The isotope data indicate their ‘juvenile’ character and suggest their derivation from source rocks or magmas separated shortly before from the upper mantle. Granitoids with negative eNd(T) values also exist, but they occur in the environs of Precambrian microcontinental blocks and their isotope compositions may reflect contamination by the older crust in the magma generation processes. The evolution of the CAOB is probably related to accretion of young arc complexes and old terranes (microcontinents). However, the emplacement of large volumes of post-tectonic granites requires another mechanism, probably through a series of processes including underplating of massive basaltic magma, intercalation of basaltic magma with lower crustal granulites, partial melting of the mixed lithologic assemblages leading to generation of granitic liquids, followed by extensive fractional crystallisation. The proportions of the juvenile or mantle component for most granitoids of Central Asia are estimated to vary from 70% to 100%.

982 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023202
2022413
2021195
2020198
2019156
2018200