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Point spread function

About: Point spread function is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8963 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 153354 citation(s).


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A localization algorithm motivated from least-squares fitting theory is constructed and tested both on image stacks of 30-nm fluorescent beads and on computer-generated images (Monte Carlo simulations), and results show good agreement with the derived precision equation.
Abstract: Calculation of the centroid of the images of individual fluorescent particles and molecules allows localization and tracking in light microscopes to a precision about an order of magnitude greater than the microscope resolution. The factors that limit the precision of these techniques are examined and a simple equation derived that describes the precision of localization over a wide range of conditions. In addition, a localization algorithm motivated from least-squares fitting theory is constructed and tested both on image stacks of 30-nm fluorescent beads and on computer-generated images (Monte Carlo simulations). Results from the algorithm show good agreement with the derived precision equation for both the simulations and actual images. The availability of a simple equation to describe localization precision helps investigators both in assessing the quality of an experimental apparatus and in directing attention to the factors that limit further improvement. The precision of localization scales as the inverse square root of the number of photons in the spot for the shot noise limited case and as the inverse of the number of photons for the background noise limited case. The optimal image magnification depends on the expected number of photons and background noise, but, for most cases of interest, the pixel size should be about equal to the standard deviation of the point spread function.

2,251 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

1,267 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.
Abstract: A self-scanned 1024 element photodiode array and minicomputer are used to measure the phase (wavefront) in the interference pattern of an interferometer to lambda/100. The photodiode array samples intensities over a 32 x 32 matrix in the interference pattern as the length of the reference arm is varied piezoelectrically. Using these data the minicomputer synchronously detects the phase at each of the 1024 points by a Fourier series method and displays the wavefront in contour and perspective plot on a storage oscilloscope in less than 1 min (Bruning et al. Paper WE16, OSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 1972). The array of intensities is sampled and averaged many times in a random fashion so that the effects of air turbulence, vibrations, and thermal drifts are minimized. Very significant is the fact that wavefront errors in the interferometer are easily determined and may be automatically subtracted from current or subsequent wavefrots. Various programs supporting the measurement system include software for determining the aperture boundary, sum and difference of wavefronts, removal or insertion of tilt and focus errors, and routines for spatial manipulation of wavefronts. FFT programs transform wavefront data into point spread function and modulus and phase of the optical transfer function of lenses. Display programs plot these functions in contour and perspective. The system has been designed to optimize the collection of data to give higher than usual accuracy in measuring the individual elements and final performance of assembled diffraction limited optical systems, and furthermore, the short loop time of a few minutes makes the system an attractive alternative to constraints imposed by test glasses in the optical shop.

1,145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A blind deconvolution algorithm based on the total variational (TV) minimization method proposed is presented, and it is remarked that psf's without sharp edges, e.g., Gaussian blur, can also be identified through the TV approach.
Abstract: We present a blind deconvolution algorithm based on the total variational (TV) minimization method proposed by Acar and Vogel (1994). The motivation for regularizing with the TV norm is that it is extremely effective for recovering edges of images as well as some blurring functions, e.g., motion blur and out-of-focus blur. An alternating minimization (AM) implicit iterative scheme is devised to recover the image and simultaneously identify the point spread function (PSF). Numerical results indicate that the iterative scheme is quite robust, converges very fast (especially for discontinuous blur), and both the image and the PSF can be recovered under the presence of high noise level. Finally, we remark that PSFs without sharp edges, e.g., Gaussian blur, can also be identified through the TV approach.

1,096 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is derived and shown experimentally that frequency- domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography.
Abstract: We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of -110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 microm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, representing more than an order-of-magnitude improvement compared with previous OCT and interferometric imaging methods.

1,037 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021312
2020414
2019391
2018420
2017399