Topic

# Polarization (waves)

About: Polarization (waves) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 65352 publications have been published within this topic receiving 984723 citations. The topic is also known as: polarisation.

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01 Jan 1977

TL;DR: In this article, the polarization of light waves and propagation of polarized light through polarizing optical systems are discussed. But the authors focus on the application of ellipsometry in the field of measurement in ellipsometer systems.

Abstract: Preface. 1. The polarization of light waves. 2. Propagation of polarized light through polarizing optical systems. 3. Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems. 4. Reflection and transmission of polarized light by stratified planar structures. 5. Instrumentation and techniques of ellipsometry. 6. Applications of ellipsometry. Appendix. Author index. Subject index.

4,634 citations

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TL;DR: This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam.

Abstract: Metamaterials are artificially fabricated materials that allow for the control of light and acoustic waves in a manner that is not possible in nature. This Review covers the recent developments in the study of so-called metasurfaces, which offer the possibility of controlling light with ultrathin, planar optical components. Conventional optical components such as lenses, waveplates and holograms rely on light propagation over distances much larger than the wavelength to shape wavefronts. In this way substantial changes of the amplitude, phase or polarization of light waves are gradually accumulated along the optical path. This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam. Metasurfaces are generally created by assembling arrays of miniature, anisotropic light scatterers (that is, resonators such as optical antennas). The spacing between antennas and their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. As a result the metasurfaces, on account of Huygens principle, are able to mould optical wavefronts into arbitrary shapes with subwavelength resolution by introducing spatial variations in the optical response of the light scatterers. Such gradient metasurfaces go beyond the well-established technology of frequency selective surfaces made of periodic structures and are extending to new spectral regions the functionalities of conventional microwave and millimetre-wave transmit-arrays and reflect-arrays. Metasurfaces can also be created by using ultrathin films of materials with large optical losses. By using the controllable abrupt phase shifts associated with reflection or transmission of light waves at the interface between lossy materials, such metasurfaces operate like optically thin cavities that strongly modify the light spectrum. Technology opportunities in various spectral regions and their potential advantages in replacing existing optical components are discussed.

4,613 citations

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15 Jan 1995

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a simulation of the optical response functions of a multilevel system with relaxation in a multimode Brownian Oscillator Model and a wavepacket analysis of nonimpulsive measurements.

Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Quantum Dynamics in Hilbert Space 3. The Density Operator and Quantum Dynamics in Liouville Space 4. Quantum Electrodynamics, Optical Polarization, and Nonlinear Spectroscopy 5. Nonlinear Response Functions and Optical Susceptibilities 6. The Optical Response Functions of a Multilevel System with Relaxation 7. Semiclassical Simulation of the Optical Response Functions 8. The Cumulant Expansion and the Multimode Brownian Oscillator Model 9. Fluorescence, Spontaneous-Raman and Coherent-Raman Spectroscopy 10. Selective Elimination of Inhomogeneous Broadening Photon Echoes 11. Resonant Gratings, Pump-Probe, and Hole Burning Spectroscopy 12. Wavepacket Dynamics in Liouville Space The Wigner Representation 13. Wavepacket Analysis of Nonimpulsive Measurements 14. Off-Resonance Raman Scattering 15. Polarization Spectroscopy Birefringence and Dichroism 16. Nonlinear Response of Molecular Assemblies The Local-Field Approximation 17. Many Body and Cooperative Effects in the Nonlinear Response

4,011 citations

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TL;DR: It is demonstrated that optical pumping with circularly polarized light can achieve complete dynamic valley polarization in monolayer MoS(2) (refs 11, 12), a two-dimensional non-centrosymmetric crystal with direct energy gaps at two valleys.

Abstract: Circularly polarized light has been used to confine charge carriers in single-layer molybdenum disulphide entirely to a single energy-band valley, representing full valley polarization.

3,425 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an investigation of the structure of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an aplanatic system which images a point source is made, and the results are illustrated by diagrams and in a tabulated form based on data obtained by extensive calculations on an electronic computor.

Abstract: An investigation is made of the structure of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an aplanatic system which images a point source. First the case of a linearly polarized incident field is examined and expressions are derived for the electric and magnetic vectors in the image space. Some general consequences of the formulae are then discussed. In particular the symmetry properties of the field with respect to the focal plane are noted and the state of polarization of the image region is investigated. The distribution of the time-averaged electric and magnetic energy densities and of the energy flow (Poynting vector) in the focal plane is studied in detail, and the results are illustrated by diagrams and in a tabulated form based on data obtained by extensive calculations on an electronic computor. The case of an unpolarized field is also investigated. The solution is riot restricted to systems of low aperture, and the computational results cover, in fact, selected values of the angular semi-aperture a on the image side, in the whole range 0 ≤ α ≤ 90°. The limiting case α → 0 is examined in detail and it is shown that the field is then completely characterized by a single, generally complex, scalar function, which turns out to be identical with that of the classical scalar theory of Airy, Lommel and Struve. The results have an immediate bearing on the resolving power of image forming systems; they also help our understanding of the significance of the scalar diffraction theory, which is customarily employed, without a proper justification, in the analysis of images in lowaperture systems.

2,636 citations