About: Polyamide is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 22737 publications have been published within this topic receiving 211508 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results show that the backbone of DNA can be replaced by a polyamide, with the resulting oligomer retaining base-specific hybridization.
Abstract: A polyamide nucleic acid (PNA) was designed by detaching the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA in a computer model and replacing it with an achiral polyamide backbone. On the basis of this model, oligomers consisting of thymine-linked aminoethylglycyl units were prepared. These oligomers recognize their complementary target in double-stranded DNA by strand displacement. The displacement is made possible by the extraordinarily high stability of the PNA-DNA hybrids. The results show that the backbone of DNA can be replaced by a polyamide, with the resulting oligomer retaining base-specific hybridization.
TL;DR: In this article, a new concept for formation of mixed matrix reverse osmosis membranes by interfacial polymerization of nanocomposite thin films in situ on porous polysulfone supports is reported.
Abstract: Here, we report on a new concept for formation of mixed matrix reverse osmosis membranes by interfacial polymerization of nanocomposite thin films in situ on porous polysulfone supports. Nanocomposite films created for this study comprise NaA zeolite nanoparticles dispersed within 50–200 nm thick polyamide films. Hand-cast pure polyamide membranes exhibit surface morphologies characteristic of commercial polyamide RO membranes, whereas nanocomposite membranes have measurably smoother and more hydrophilic, negatively charged surfaces. At the highest nanoparticle loadings tested, hand-cast nanocomposite film morphology is visibly different and pure water permeability is nearly double that of hand-cast polyamide membranes with equivalent solute rejections. Comparison of membranes formed using pore-filled and pore-opened zeolites suggest nanoparticle pores play an active role in water permeation and solute rejection. The best performing nanocomposite membranes exhibit permeability and rejection characteristics comparable to commercial RO membranes. As a concept, thin film nanocomposite membrane technology may offer new degrees of freedom in tailoring RO membrane separation performance and material properties. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, the physicochemical properties of reserve osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) polyamide (PA) membranes are largely determined by their PA chemistry and coatings, if any.
Abstract: The physiochemical properties of reserve osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) polyamide (PA) membranes are largely determined by their PA chemistry and coatings, if any. Knowledge on such inherent relationship is critically needed in advancing membrane technology. This paper presents a consistent and in-depth characterization on diagnosing the chemistry of polyamide and the presence of any coating or modifying agent. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of 17 commonly used commercial thin film composite polyamide RO and NF membranes are presented. The FTIR spectra for fully aromatic trimesoyl chloride and 1,3-benzenediamine based membranes had an amide II band (1541 cm−1) and an aromatic amide band (1609 cm−1) that were absent for the semi-aromatic membranes. Consistent with that, the XPS binding energy shift for carbon atoms in fully aromatic amide groups was higher than that for semi-aromatic ones likely due to the more electron withdrawing environment. An additional intermediate peak with a binding energy shift of 1.1–1.6 eV was present in the XPS spectra of C(1s) for some commercial RO and NF membranes. The additional peak, coupled with FITR analysis over the high wave number region and XPS elemental analysis, provided consistent evidence that these membranes were either coated with an additional coating layer or had a modified PA chemistry.
TL;DR: In this article, the properties of polyamide thin films formed via identical interfacial polymerization conditions over porous polysulfone supports with different physical and chemical properties were discussed, including dextran rejections, water contact angles, and surface roughness statistics.
Abstract: Herein, we discuss the properties of polyamide thin films formed via identical interfacial polymerization conditions over porous polysulfone supports with different physical and chemical properties. Polysulfone supports were formed by nonsolvent induced phase separation (i.e., immersion precipitation) employing several casting solution and precipitation bath chemistries. Hand-cast polysulfone films (and a commercial polysulfone membrane) exhibited a wide range of pure water permeabilities, dextran rejections, water contact angles, and surface roughness statistics. These results, combined with FTIR spectra and SEM images, confirm that each support offered a different skin layer pore morphology and chemistry. Polyamide composite membranes formed thereon displayed widely varying film morphology, separation performance, and interfacial properties. More permeable, hydrophilic supports produced low permeability polyamide–polysulfone interfacial composite membranes, whereas highly porous, relatively hydrophobic supports produced more permeable composite membranes. A conceptual model was proposed to explain the potential impacts of polysulfone support membrane properties during the polyamide interfacial polymerization reaction and the resulting characteristics of polyamide–polysulfone interfacial composite membranes.
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