About: Polyamine binding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 188 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 9206 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Sep 1988-Journal of Neurochemistry
TL;DR: High concentrations of l‐glutamate, glycine, or spermidine produced concentration‐dependent increases in specific [3H]MK‐801 binding due to a reduction in the Kd of the radioligand.
Abstract: In extensively washed rat cortical membranes [3H](+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5 H-dibenzo [a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ([3H]MK-801) labeled a homogeneous set of sites (Bmax = 1.86 pmol/mg protein) with relatively low affinity (KD = 45 nM). L-Glutamate, glycine, and spermidine produced concentration-dependent increases in specific [3H]MK-801 binding due to a reduction in the KD of the radioligand. In the presence of high concentrations of L-glutamate, glycine, or spermidine, the KD values for [3H]MK-801 were reduced to 11 nM, 18 nM, and 15 nM, respectively. Maximally effective concentrations of combinations of the three compounds further increased [3H]MK-801 binding affinity as follows: L-glutamate + glycine, KD = 6.2 nM; L-glutamate + spermidine, KD = 2.2 nM; glycine + spermidine, KD = 8.3 nM. High concentrations of spermidine did not inhibit either [3H]glycine orf [3H]3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. The concentration of L-glutamate required to produce half-maximal enhancement (EC50) of [3H]MK-801 binding was reduced from 218 nM to 52 nM in the presence of 30 microM glycine and to 41 nM in the presence of 50 microM spermidine. The EC50 value for glycine enhancement of [3H]MK-801 binding was 184 nM. This was lowered to 47 nM in the presence of L-glutamate and to 59 nM in the presence of spermidine. Spermidine enhanced [3H]MK-801 binding with an EC50 value of 19.4 microM which was significantly reduced by high concentrations of L-glutamate (EC50 = 3.9 microM) or glycine (EC50 = 6.2 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
TL;DR: Stabilization of the native, autoinhibitory structure of alphaS constitutes a potential strategy for reducing or inhibiting oligomerization and aggregation in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract: In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusions (Lewy bodies) containing aggregates of the protein α-synuclein (αS) are deposited in the pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. The mechanisms underlying the structural transition of innocuous, presumably natively unfolded, αS to neurotoxic forms are largely unknown. Using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and NMR dipolar couplings, we show that monomeric αS assumes conformations that are stabilized by long-range interactions and act to inhibit oligomerization and aggregation. The autoinhibitory conformations fluctuate in the range of nanoseconds to micro-seconds corresponding to the time scale of secondary structure formation during folding. Polyamine binding and/or temperature increase, conditions that induce aggregation in vitro, release this inherent tertiary structure, leading to a completely unfolded conformation that associates readily. Stabilization of the native, autoinhibitory structure of αS constitutes a potential strategy for reducing or inhibiting oligomerization and aggregation in Parkinson's disease.
TL;DR: Electrophysiological characterization of six splice variants of the NR1 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes identifies the contributions of the separate polypeptide domains to modulation by polyamines and PKC and provides further support for the concept that subunit composition determines functional properties of NMDA receptors.
Abstract: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 gene encodes RNA that is alternatively spliced to generate at least seven variants. The variants arise from splicing in or out of three exons; one encodes a 21-amino acid insert in the N-terminal domain, and two encode adjacent sequences of 37 and 38 amino acids in the C-terminal domain. Splicing out of the second C-terminal exon deletes a stop codon and results in an additional open reading frame encoding an unrelated sequence of 22 amino acids before arriving at a second stop codon. We denote the NR1 variants by the presence or absence of the three alternatively spliced exons (from 5' to 3'); thus, NR1(111) has all three exons, NR1(000) has none, and NR1(100) has only the N-terminal exon. We report here electrophysiological characterization of six splice variants of the NR1 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. NR1 receptors that lacked the N-terminal exon (NR1(000), NR1(010), and NR1(011)) exhibited a relatively high affinity for NMDA (EC50 approximately 13 microM) and marked potentiation by spermine. In contrast, those receptor variants with the N-terminal insert (NR1(100), NR1(101), and NR1(111)) showed a lower agonist affinity and little or no spermine potentiation at saturating glycine. All six variants showed spermine potentiation at low glycine and inhibition by spermine at more negative potentials. Variants differing only in the C-terminal domain differed little in agonist affinity and spermine potentiation. These findings indicate that the N-terminal insert either participates in agonist and polyamine binding domains or indirectly modifies their conformations. The splice variants differed in the extent to which they could be potentiated by activators of protein kinase C (PKC) from 3- to 20-fold. Presence of the N-terminal insert and absence of the C-terminal sequences increased potentiation by PKC. These findings identify the contributions of the separate polypeptide domains to modulation by polyamines and PKC and provide further support for the concept that subunit composition determines functional properties of NMDA receptors.
TL;DR: Most polyamines exist as a polyamine-RNA complex in cells under the conditions that globin synthesis is stimulated by spermine in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system and the amount of sPermine bound to RNA was very close to the value estimated in the cells.
Abstract: To estimate the polyamine distribution in bovine lymphocytes and rat liver, the binding constants (K) for DNA, RNA, phospholipid, and ATP were determined under the conditions of 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 2 mM Mg2+, and 150 mM K+. The binding constants of spermine for calf thymus DNA, Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA, phospholipid in rat liver microsomes and ATP were 1.15 x 10(2), 6.69 x 10(2), 2.22 x 10(2), and 5.95 x 10(2) M-1, respectively. From these binding constants and experimentally determined cellular concentrations of macromolecules, ATP, and polyamines, spermine distribution in the cells was estimated. In bovine lymphocytes, the mols of spermine bound to DNA, RNA, phospholipid, and ATP were 0.79, 3.7, 0.23, and 4.3 per 100 mol of phosphate of macromolecules or ATP, respectively. In rat liver, they were 0.19, 1.0, 0.05, and 0.97/100 mol of phosphate of macromolecules or ATP, respectively. The binding constants of spermidine for macromolecules and ATP were smaller than those of spermine, but a similar tendency was observed with spermidine distribution among macromolecules and ATP in the above two cells. The amount of polyamine bound to DNA and phospholipid was significantly lower than that to RNA. When either the Mg2+ or K+ concentration increased, the amount of free spermine and that bound to RNA and ATP increased, but the amount of spermine bound to DNA and phospholipid decreased. The results indicate that most polyamines exist as a polyamine-RNA complex in cells. Under the conditions that globin synthesis is stimulated by spermine in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system, the amount of spermine bound to RNA was very close to the value estimated in the cells.
26 Nov 2004-Biochemistry
TL;DR: The effects of the C-terminus on aggregation cannot be rationalized merely by a contribution to the protein net charge, but rather suggest a specific role of aa109-140 in the regulation of aggregation, presumably involving formation of intramolecular contacts.
Abstract: The aggregation of alpha-synuclein, involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, is enhanced in vitro by biogenic polyamines binding to the highly charged C-terminal region aa109-140. In this study, we investigated the influence of this region on the aggregation kinetics, monitored by thioflavin T binding and static light scattering, and morphology, assessed by electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and turbidity, by comparing the effect of various solution conditions on the wild-type protein, the disease related mutants A53T and A30P, and two truncated variants, syn(1-108) and syn(1-124), lacking the complete or the C-terminal half of the polyamine binding site. In the presence of the intact C-terminus, aggregation was strongly retarded in physiological buffer. This inhibition of aggregation was overridden by (i) addition of spermine or MgCl(2) or lowering of pH, leading to strong charge shielding in the C-terminus or (ii) by truncation of aa125-140 or aa109-140. Addition of MgCl(2) or spermine or acidification were not effective in promoting aggregation of syn(1-108). The impact of the disease-related mutations on the aggregation kinetics was dependent on the solution conditions, with the aggregation propensity order A53T approximately wt > A30P at low ionic strength, but A53T > wt approximately A30P at high ionic strength, with exceedingly potent promotion of aggregation by the A53T mutation in the presence of spermine. In contrast to full-length alpha-synuclein aggregates, those formed from syn(1-108) did not exhibit a pronounced polymorphism. The effects of the C-terminus on aggregation cannot be rationalized merely by a contribution to the protein net charge, but rather suggest a specific role of aa109-140 in the regulation of aggregation, presumably involving formation of intramolecular contacts.
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