scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question


About: Polymer is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 131496 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2672370 citations. The topic is also known as: polymers.

More filters
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the viscoelasticity of polymeric liquids was studied in the context of rigid rod-like polymers and concentrated solutions of rigid rods like polymers.
Abstract: Introduction Static properties of polymers Brownian motion Dynamics of flexible polymers in dilute solution Many chain systems Dynamics of a polymer in a fixed network Molecular theory for the viscoelasticity of polymeric liquids Dilute solutions of rigid rodlike polymers Semidilute solutions of rigid rodlike polymers Concentrated solutions of rigid rodlike polymers Index.

10,225 citations

01 Jan 1985
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a chain transfer characterisation of polymers charge-transfer complexes, charge transfer complexes and charge transfer complexes of charge transfer and charge-Transfer complexes.
Abstract: Cellular Materials Cellulose Cellulose, Biosynthesis Cellulose, Graft Copolymers Cellulose, Microcrystalline Cellulose Derivatives Cellulose Esters, Inorganic Cellulose Esters, Organic Cellulose Ethers Cement Additives Chain-Reaction Polymerization Chain Transfer Characterization of Polymers Charge-Transfer Complexes Chelate- Forming Polymers Chemical Analysis Chemically Resistant Polymers Chitin Chloroprene Polymers Chlorotrifluorethylene Polymers Chromatography Classification of Polymerization Reactions Coating Methods Coatings Coatings, Electrodeposition Cold Forming.

7,256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the academic and industrial aspects of the preparation, characterization, materials properties, crystallization behavior, melt rheology, and processing of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites is given in this article.
Abstract: A review is given of the academic and industrial aspects of the preparation, characterization, materials properties, crystallization behavior, melt rheology, and processing of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. These materials are attracting considerable interest in polymer science research. Hectorite and montmorillonite are among the most commonly used smectite-type layered silicates for the preparation of nanocomposites. Smectites are a valuable mineral class for industrial applications because of their high cation exchange capacities, surface area, surface reactivity, adsorptive properties, and, in the case of hectorite, high viscosity and transparency in solution. In their pristine form they are hydrophilic in nature, and this property makes them very difficult to disperse into a polymer matrix. The most common way to remove this difficulty is to replace interlayer cations with quarternized ammonium or phosphonium cations, preferably with long alkyl chains. A wide range of polymer matrices is covered in this review, with special emphasis on biodegradable polymers. In general, polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites are of three different types, namely (1) intercalated nanocomposites , for which insertion of polymer chains into a layered silicate structure occurs in a crystallographically regular fashion, with a repeat distance of few nanometers, regardless of polymer to clay ratio, (2) flocculated nanocomposites , for which intercalated and stacked silicate layers flocculated to some extent due to the hydroxylated edge–edge interactions of the silicate layers, and (3) exfoliated nanocomposites , for which the individual silicate layers are separated in the polymer matrix by average distances that depend only on the clay loading. This new family of composite materials frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of material properties when compared with the matrix polymers alone or conventional micro- and macro-composite materials. Improvements can include a high storage modulus, both in solid and melt states, increased tensile and flexural properties, a decrease in gas permeability and flammability, increased heat distortion temperature, an increase in the biodegradability rate of biodegradable polymers, and so forth.

6,343 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Practical Interests of Magnetic NuclearRelaxation for the Characterization of Superparamagnetic Colloid, and Use of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents forMRI20825.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 20642. Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 20662.1. Classical Synthesis by Coprecipitation 20662.2. Reactions in Constrained Environments 20682.3. Hydrothermal and High-TemperatureReactions20692.4. Sol-Gel Reactions 20702.5. Polyol Methods 20712.6. Flow Injection Syntheses 20712.7. Electrochemical Methods 20712.8. Aerosol/Vapor Methods 20712.9. Sonolysis 20723. Stabilization of Magnetic Particles 20723.1. Monomeric Stabilizers 20723.1.1. Carboxylates 20733.1.2. Phosphates 20733.2. Inorganic Materials 20733.2.1. Silica 20733.2.2. Gold 20743.3. Polymer Stabilizers 20743.3.1. Dextran 20743.3.2. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 20753.3.3. Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) 20753.3.4. Alginate 20753.3.5. Chitosan 20753.3.6. Other Polymers 20753.4. Other Strategies for Stabilization 20764. Methods of Vectorization of the Particles 20765. Structural and Physicochemical Characterization 20785.1. Size, Polydispersity, Shape, and SurfaceCharacterization20795.2. Structure of Ferro- or FerrimagneticNanoparticles20805.2.1. Ferro- and Ferrimagnetic Nanoparticles 20805.3. Use of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents forMRI20825.3.1. High Anisotropy Model 20845.3.2. Small Crystal and Low Anisotropy EnergyLimit20855.3.3. Practical Interests of Magnetic NuclearRelaxation for the Characterization ofSuperparamagnetic Colloid20855.3.4. Relaxation of Agglomerated Systems 20856. Applications 20866.1. MRI: Cellular Labeling, Molecular Imaging(Inflammation, Apoptose, etc.)20866.2.

5,915 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites is presented, where the polymer chains are sandwiched in between silicate layers and exfoliated layers are more or less uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix.
Abstract: This review aims at reporting on very recent developments in syntheses, properties and (future) applications of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This new type of materials, based on smectite clays usually rendered hydrophobic through ionic exchange of the sodium interlayer cation with an onium cation, may be prepared via various synthetic routes comprising exfoliation adsorption, in situ intercalative polymerization and melt intercalation. The whole range of polymer matrices is covered, i.e. thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers. Two types of structure may be obtained, namely intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched in between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the separated, individual silicate layers are more or less uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix. This new family of materials exhibits enhanced properties at very low filler level, usually inferior to 5 wt.%, such as increased Young’s modulus and storage modulus, increase in thermal stability and gas barrier properties and good flame retardancy.

5,901 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
147.9K papers, 2.7M citations
96% related
Carbon nanotube
109K papers, 3.6M citations
91% related
85.9K papers, 2.6M citations
91% related
213.4K papers, 3.6M citations
89% related
Aqueous solution
189.5K papers, 3.4M citations
88% related
No. of papers in the topic in previous years