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Polymer nanocomposite

About: Polymer nanocomposite is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8977 publications have been published within this topic receiving 297599 citations.


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TL;DR: In this paper, a new, versatile and environmentally benign synthesis approach by polymer melt intercalation is discussed. But, unlike in-situ polymerization and solution inter-calation, melt interalation involves mixing the layered silicates with the polymer and heating the mixture above the softening point of the polymer.
Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites with layered silicates as the inorganic phase (reinforcement) are discussed. The materials design and synthesis rely on the ability of layered silicates to intercalate in the galleries between their layers a wide range of monomers and polymers. Special emphasis is placed on a new, versatile and environmentally benign synthesis approach by polymer melt intercalation. In contrast to in-situ polymerization and solution intercalation, melt intercalation involves mixing the layered silicate with the polymer and heating the mixture above the softening point of the polymer. Compatibility with various polymers is accomplished by derivatizing the silicates with alkyl ammonium cations via an ion exchange reaction. By fine-tuning the surface characteristics nanodispersion (i. e. intercalation or delamination) can be accomplished. The resulting polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites exhibit properties dramatically different from their more conventional counterparts. For example, PLS nanocomposites can attain a particular degree of stiffness, strength and barrier properties with far less inorganic content than comparable glass- or mineral reinforced polymers and, therefore, they are far lighter in weight. In addition, PLS nanocomposites exhibit significant increase in thermal stability as well as self-extinguishing characteristics. The combination of improved properties, convenient processing and low cost has already led to a few commercial applications with more currently under development.

3,468 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modulus, ultimate strength and thermal stability follow a similar trend, with values for functionalized graphene sheet- poly(methyl methacrylate) rivaling those for single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(methyl methamphetamine) composites.
Abstract: Polymer-based composites were heralded in the 1960s as a new paradigm for materials. By dispersing strong, highly stiff fibres in a polymer matrix, high-performance lightweight composites could be developed and tailored to individual applications. Today we stand at a similar threshold in the realm of polymer nanocomposites with the promise of strong, durable, multifunctional materials with low nanofiller content. However, the cost of nanoparticles, their availability and the challenges that remain to achieve good dispersion pose significant obstacles to these goals. Here, we report the creation of polymer nanocomposites with functionalized graphene sheets, which overcome these obstacles and provide superb polymer-particle interactions. An unprecedented shift in glass transition temperature of over 40 degrees C is obtained for poly(acrylonitrile) at 1 wt% functionalized graphene sheet, and with only 0.05 wt% functionalized graphene sheet in poly(methyl methacrylate) there is an improvement of nearly 30 degrees C. Modulus, ultimate strength and thermal stability follow a similar trend, with values for functionalized graphene sheet- poly(methyl methacrylate) rivaling those for single-walled carbon nanotube-poly(methyl methacrylate) composites.

3,245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of polymer nanocomposites with single-wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes is presented, and the current challenges to and opportunities for efficiently translating the extraordinary properties of carbon-nanotubes to polymer matrices are summarized.
Abstract: We review the present state of polymer nanocomposites research in which the fillers are single-wall or multiwall carbon nanotubes. By way of background we provide a brief synopsis about carbon nanotube materials and their suspensions. We summarize and critique various nanotube/polymer composite fabrication methods including solution mixing, melt mixing, and in situ polymerization with a particular emphasis on evaluating the dispersion state of the nanotubes. We discuss mechanical, electrical, rheological, thermal, and flammability properties separately and how these physical properties depend on the size, aspect ratio, loading, dispersion state, and alignment of nanotubes within polymer nanocomposites. Finally, we summarize the current challenges to and opportunities for efficiently translating the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices in hopes of facilitating progress in this emerging area.

3,239 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structure, preparation and properties of polymer/graphene nanocomposites are discussed in general along with detailed examples drawn from the scientific literature, and the percolation threshold can be achieved at a very lower filler loading.

2,999 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Graphene has emerged as a subject of enormous scientific interest due to its exceptional electron transport, mechanical properties, and high surface area, and when incorporated appropriately, these atomically thin carbon sheets can significantly improve physical properties of host polymers at extremely small loading.
Abstract: Graphene has emerged as a subject of enormous scientific interest due to its exceptional electron transport, mechanical properties, and high surface area. When incorporated appropriately, these atomically thin carbon sheets can significantly improve physical properties of host polymers at extremely small loading. We first review production routes to exfoliated graphite with an emphasis on top-down strategies starting from graphite oxide, including advantages and disadvantages of each method. Then solvent- and melt-based strategies to disperse chemically or thermally reduced graphene oxide in polymers are discussed. Analytical techniques for characterizing particle dimensions, surface characteristics, and dispersion in matrix polymers are also introduced. We summarize electrical, thermal, mechanical, and gas barrier properties of the graphene/polymer nanocomposites. We conclude this review listing current challenges associated with processing and scalability of graphene composites and future perspectives f...

2,979 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023165
2022391
2021661
2020726
2019630
2018674