About: Pooling is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5583 publications have been published within this topic receiving 161394 citations.
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TL;DR: Mice adds new functionality for imputing multilevel data, automatic predictor selection, data handling, post-processing imputed values, specialized pooling routines, model selection tools, and diagnostic graphs.
Abstract: The R package mice imputes incomplete multivariate data by chained equations. The software mice 1.0 appeared in the year 2000 as an S-PLUS library, and in 2001 as an R package. mice 1.0 introduced predictor selection, passive imputation and automatic pooling. This article documents mice, which extends the functionality of mice 1.0 in several ways. In mice, the analysis of imputed data is made completely general, whereas the range of models under which pooling works is substantially extended. mice adds new functionality for imputing multilevel data, automatic predictor selection, data handling, post-processing imputed values, specialized pooling routines, model selection tools, and diagnostic graphs. Imputation of categorical data is improved in order to bypass problems caused by perfect prediction. Special attention is paid to transformations, sum scores, indices and interactions using passive imputation, and to the proper setup of the predictor matrix. mice can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network. This article provides a hands-on, stepwise approach to solve applied incomplete data problems.
••08 Sep 2018
TL;DR: This work extends DeepLabv3 by adding a simple yet effective decoder module to refine the segmentation results especially along object boundaries and applies the depthwise separable convolution to both Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling and decoder modules, resulting in a faster and stronger encoder-decoder network.
Abstract: Spatial pyramid pooling module or encode-decoder structure are used in deep neural networks for semantic segmentation task. The former networks are able to encode multi-scale contextual information by probing the incoming features with filters or pooling operations at multiple rates and multiple effective fields-of-view, while the latter networks can capture sharper object boundaries by gradually recovering the spatial information. In this work, we propose to combine the advantages from both methods. Specifically, our proposed model, DeepLabv3+, extends DeepLabv3 by adding a simple yet effective decoder module to refine the segmentation results especially along object boundaries. We further explore the Xception model and apply the depthwise separable convolution to both Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling and decoder modules, resulting in a faster and stronger encoder-decoder network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model on PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscapes datasets, achieving the test set performance of 89% and 82.1% without any post-processing. Our paper is accompanied with a publicly available reference implementation of the proposed models in Tensorflow at https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/research/deeplab.
TL;DR: This work equips the networks with another pooling strategy, "spatial pyramid pooling", to eliminate the above requirement, and develops a new network structure, called SPP-net, which can generate a fixed-length representation regardless of image size/scale.
Abstract: Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) require a fixed-size (e.g., 224 $\times$ 224) input image. This requirement is “artificial” and may reduce the recognition accuracy for the images or sub-images of an arbitrary size/scale. In this work, we equip the networks with another pooling strategy, “spatial pyramid pooling”, to eliminate the above requirement. The new network structure, called SPP-net, can generate a fixed-length representation regardless of image size/scale. Pyramid pooling is also robust to object deformations. With these advantages, SPP-net should in general improve all CNN-based image classification methods. On the ImageNet 2012 dataset, we demonstrate that SPP-net boosts the accuracy of a variety of CNN architectures despite their different designs. On the Pascal VOC 2007 and Caltech101 datasets, SPP-net achieves state-of-the-art classification results using a single full-image representation and no fine-tuning. The power of SPP-net is also significant in object detection. Using SPP-net, we compute the feature maps from the entire image only once, and then pool features in arbitrary regions (sub-images) to generate fixed-length representations for training the detectors. This method avoids repeatedly computing the convolutional features. In processing test images, our method is 24-102 $\times$ faster than the R-CNN method, while achieving better or comparable accuracy on Pascal VOC 2007. In ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2014, our methods rank #2 in object detection and #3 in image classification among all 38 teams. This manuscript also introduces the improvement made for this competition.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors revisited the global average pooling layer and shed light on how it explicitly enables the convolutional neural network to have remarkable localization ability despite being trained on image-level labels.
Abstract: In this work, we revisit the global average pooling layer proposed in , and shed light on how it explicitly enables the convolutional neural network to have remarkable localization ability despite being trained on image-level labels. While this technique was previously proposed as a means for regularizing training, we find that it actually builds a generic localizable deep representation that can be applied to a variety of tasks. Despite the apparent simplicity of global average pooling, we are able to achieve 37.1% top-5 error for object localization on ILSVRC 2014, which is remarkably close to the 34.2% top-5 error achieved by a fully supervised CNN approach. We demonstrate that our network is able to localize the discriminative image regions on a variety of tasks despite not being trained for them
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